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the Old South of America - Referat

The Old South of America (1800-1860)

· Differenciate in Upper South (Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee und Arkansas) and Lower South (Douth Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas)
· Agrarculture:
§ Tobacco lost ist economic vitality, destroyed the southern soil
§ Cotton since 1790s primary planting, high export to Great Britain
Ø Cotton Gin (Entkörnerungsmaschine), seperates the seam (Fasern) from the grain (Kern)
§ climate perfect to grow cotton
§ Between 1810 and 1830 the slave population doubled, ¾ worked in cotton industry
§ Cotton was accordable with corn, corn could be plant and harvest earlier than cotton, one field could be used for two plants
§ Lower South was dominated by sugar and cotton cultivation, the Upper South was the region for tobacco, vegetables, hemp (Hand) and wheat (Weizen)
Ø Dependent on slavery
§ since 1860 intensive trade with the North
· Education:
§ School education had no high importance
§ There were just private schools, not every family could or wanted to send their children there
Ø Most were not interested into formation (Ausbildung)/ education
Ø Unconvinced (nicht überzeugt) of the need for public education
§ Was not allowed to teach slaves
· Slavery:
§ Between the 16th and 19th century around 10 million african-americans were reatarded, in 1713 England was the slavery monopol
§ 1619 first slaves in America (Jamestown/Virginia)
§ worked at tobacco- and cotton plantation, was not as hard as work at sugar plantations, more women could be owned, slaveholders supported starting families
Ø children are new and cheap workers, not so many rebellions (the slaves had too much to loose)
§ the release (Freilassung) of a slave was low, often just the bastards with a female slave
§ trade slaves for european goods (alcohol and textils)
§ as the first slaves came to America, they were contracutal (vertraglich) attenders (Diener), but since and after the independence wars the were slaves in the whole meaning (enforced work, are property, had to comply to the will of their owner, have no own property)
§ had to live with few food, bad clothes and under beating
§ worked from sunrise to sunset, at all type of weather, children
had to work since age 10
§ slaves had theoretically rights (for example: support, when they get sick or old, could be witness (Zeuge), marriage, free time), but it lay in the owner’s hand to give them this rights
Ø human rights get desteemed, female slaves were raped by their owners, the slaves were dismembered (verstümmelt) by burning signs in their skin, some get murdered
§ until 1865 the slave holding in the southern states was allowed
Abraham Lincoln was elected for president and South Carolina declared the leaving of the United States. 10 other southern states followed. Together they formed the confederate states of America. 1861 to 1865 it came to civil war. The Confederate States hat to surrender. During this War Lincoln proclamated the freedom of all slaves.

· Werner Digel:„Meyers Taschenlexikon Geschichte“, Mannheim u.a. 1989.
· Paul S. Boyer, Clifford E. Clark, Sandra McNair Hawley: “The Enduring Vision. A History of the American People”, Houghton Mifflin; Auflage: 5th ed. (2005)
· http://www.abipur.de/hausaufgaben/neu/detail/stat/13543270.html (26.09.2009, 17:15)
· http://www.abipur.de/hausaufgaben/neu/detail/stat/20261746.html (26.09.2009, 17:20)
· http://www.abipur.de/hausaufgaben/neu/detail/stat/653159194.html (26.09.2009, 17:25)
· http://www.abipur.de/hausaufgaben/neu/detail/stat/104242696.html (26.09.2009, 17:45)
· http://wapedia.mobi/de/S%C3%BCdstaaten (27.09.2009, 14:30)
· http://oeffingerfreidenker.blogspot.com/2008/11/das-politische-system-der-usa-i.html (27.09.2009, 17:50)
· diverse Lexika

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