permanent make-up - Referat
The word mascara derives from the Italian word maschera, which means "mask". Modern mascara was created in 1913 by a chemist named T. L. Williams for his sister, Mabel. This early mascara was made from coal dust mixed with Vaseline petroleum jelly. The product was a success with Mabel, and Williams began to sell his new product through the mail. He named his company Maybelline, which is a combination of his sister's name and "Vaseline." Maybelline eventually became a leading cosmetics company.
Mascara was available only in cake form, and was composed of colorants and carnauba wax. Users wet a brush and rubbed it over the cake, then applied it to the eyes. The modern tube and wand applicator did not appear until 1957, when it was introduced by Helena Rubinstein.
Cosmetics or make up are substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning. Cosmetics include lotions, powders, lipsticks and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that orginated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses.
The ingredients of modern cosmetics may also surprise those who use them: Lipstick, for example, can contain the shimmery substance of fish scales called "pearl essence". Pearl essence is obtained primarily from herring and is one of many by-products of large-scale commercial fish processing. This is rarely used due to the high cost and extreme fragility of this type of colorant. The primary source of the pearlescent shine used in lipsticks, eyeshadows, and blush is mica, a natural, mined mineral. The mica, which is translucent, is coated with a very thin layer of titanium dioxide. This coating causes color to appear through interference effects with the mica; varying the thickness of the titanium dioxide changes the color.
The red color of lipstick can come from iron oxide (rust) or from organic pigments. Typically, the pigment is crushed very finely while being mixed with castor oil. This pigment mixture is then mixed with a wax base to form a finished lipstick. The red color of some eyeshadows is from the dye carmine, made from the crushed bodies of the cochineal insect. This is extremely expensive and is used as rarely as possible. Pure carmine dye is usually more expensive than gold.
Permanent makeup is a cosmetic technique which employs tattoos (permanent pigmentation of the dermis) as a means of producing designs that resemble makeup, such as eyelining (eye shadows and mascara) and other permanent enhancing colors to the skin of the face, lips and eyelids. It is also used to produce artificial eyebrows, particulary in people who have lost it as a consequence of old age, disease, such as alopecia, chemotherapy or a genetic disturbance, and to disguise scars and white spots in the skin such as in vitiligo. It is also used to restore or enhance the breast's areola, such as after breast surgery.
Other names used are dermapigmentation, micropigmentation, permanent cosmetics and cosmetic tattooing.
Results are usually good, if somewhat artificial-looking, such as in complete alopecia of the eyebrows. The skill and the experience of the tattoo artist are fundamental. Before committing to permanent makeup, particularly if for cosmetic purposes only, patients should be aware of the potential problems of later removal and complications that may ensue. As with tattooing, permanent makeup may take long painful sessions.
Result looks hard just after but becomes natural (as natural as makeup can be) after a few weeks. Picture below shows an example:
Permanent makeup is very useful for women who cannot apply makeup easily because they have allergic reactions to makeup materials, or have vision deficits or tremors or restrictions of precise movements of the fingers and hands, such as in arthritis, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, or other conditions. Permanent makeup is also used to camouflage facial scarring.
The pigmentation of permanent makeup may fade over time, particularly under the effect of sunlight. It usually lasts for a decade or more before fading significantly. Touching up the makeup restores original color.
As with any tattoos, permanent makeup is difficult to remove. Common techniques used for this are laser resurfacing, dermabrasion (physical or chemical peeling), scarification and surgical removal. Another interesting technique is camouflaging, i.e., adding a new pigment which counteracts the tattoo color and emulates normal skin color. Removal may be even more painful and laborious than the tattooing itself.
Adverse effects and complications
As it happens with tattoos, skin micropigmentation used in permanent makeup may have complications, such as allergies to the pigments, formation of scars, granulomas and keloids, skin cracking, peeling, blistering and local infection. The use of unsterilized tattooing instruments may infect the patient with serious diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis.
Rarely, some people with permanent makeup have experienced temporary swelling or burning in the affected areas when they underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The probable cause is magnetic interference with metallic components (iron oxide) of some pigments used in the tattos.
Testing cosmetics on animals
Cosmetics testing is particularly controversial. It is banned in the Netherlands, Belgium, and the UK, and in 2002, after 13 years of discussion, the European Union (EU) agreed to phase in a near-total ban on the sale of animal-tested cosmetics throughout the EU from 2009, and to ban all cosmetics-related animal testing.  France, which is home to the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oreal, has protested the proposed ban by lodging a case at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, asking that the ban be quashed. The ban is also opposed by the European Federation for Cosmetics Ingredients, which represents 70 companies in Switzerland, Belgium, France, Germany and Italy.
Cosmetic testing on animals includes:
· testing a finished product such as lipstick;
· testing individual ingredients, or a combination of them;
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