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William Shakespeare - 2.Version - Referat

William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616)

1.) Biography
2.) Theatre
3.) MacBeth

1.) Biography

–not much notes about his life

The time of Shakespeare was a historical period of transition, because the power of the subordinated feudal society and the powerful, new bourgeoisie were equal
There was a crossing of middle age thoughts and humanistic ideas from the renaissance
- stories of Shakespeare: actor has the conflict inside him and fails because of the contrast between mind and feelings

- born 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon
- father: -John Shakespeare = respected agriculturist and dealer
-1565 elected as selectman later he became major

mother: - Mary Arden of Wilmcote à heiress of a piece of land
- John got a higher social position, because he married her

- age of 18 he married Anne Hathaway at the 28th November 1582
- 3 children Susanne (1583) and the twins Hamnet and Judith (1585)
- Hamnet his only son died in the age of 11
- 1587 he probably went to London à worked with one of the biggest theatre companies of London as dramatist, stage director and actor
- he played 1594 the first time for queen Elisabeth I
- in 1596 he got a coat of arms
- 1597 he bought a house in Stratford
1599 he was co-owner of the “Globe-Theatre” and bought in 1608 the “Blackfriar’s Theatre” In the 1960’s he wrote the dramas and comedies “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”, “Romeo and Juliet”, “The Taming of the Shrew Land”, “The Merry Wives of Windsor”, “Much Ado about Nothing” and “As You Like It”

- After the turn of the century he wrote the famous tragedies "Julius Caesar", "Hamlet", "Othello", "King Lear" and "Macbeth"
- 1611 he went back to his family in Stratford
- he died at the 23rd April 1616 in Stratford-upon-Avon
on his gravestone is no name, instead of it there is the text:
Good frend, for Jesus' sake forbeare
To digg the dust encloased heare.
Blest be the man that spares thes stones,
And curst be he that moves my bones.

- influenced the European Theatre very much
- he influenced Lessing, Herder and Goethe

2.) Theater

- London: elisabethanschisches Theatre (1590 – 1610)
- Fight between good and bad + biblical happenings had big influence
- Theatre life was flourished (was growing)
- Bourgeois, capitalistic boom, because of the manufactories
- 11 theatres in London à performances from Monday till Saturday, never on Sunday’s
- only men
- artful language and highly developed dramatic art
very low prices
Globe theatre: built 1599 with material from another theatre
Bankside à southern bank of the Thames
1613 à Globe burned down
1614 à Rebuilt
it’s round; frame – work; open roof
many trapdoors à room under the stage = hell
there are standing places directly in front of the stage; and also seating
- objects could have been moved to the stage from below and above

3.)Mac Beth:

Duncan = King of Scotland
Malcolm and Donalbain = his Sons
Macbeth and Banquo = his commanders
Macduff = Scottish nobleman
Lady Macbeth
HECATE, Queen of the Witches
The Three Witches (The "weird sisters" not very friendly people, who have a habit of
telling peoples' futures via "familiar spirits")
Three Murderers (They do all of Macbeth's dirty work after he has become king and
is deeply stricken with guilt from killing but still feels the need to murder)
content: Macbeth = commander in the Scottish army of King Duncan
Banquo = best friend
Knocked down a rebel riot of the “Thane of Cawdor”
Go to King Duncan to tell him about the winning, meet 3 witches
Auguries: Macbeth becomes Thane of Cawdor and King
Banquo will never be King, but his sons
Both don’t care about it
King Duncan makes Macbeth Thane of Cawdor / they begin to estimate the augurie
Duncan makes his oldest son to the follower and so Macbeth is disappointed and
wants to kill him
Macbeth invites King D. to his casel and Macbeth kills him and his bodyguards, after
they were drunken
Sons of King D. bolt from Scotland à Macbeth becomes king
To keep his power he kills a lot of people, also Banquo
His wife becomes insane because of the heavy number of homicides
Macbeth meets the witches again and they tell him, that he must be careful, because
of Macduff, that he can’t be killed by a man, that was born from a women and if the
forest of
Birnam moves to Dunsinane
Macbeth let the family Macduff kill, but Macduff himself evades
The enemies affront and Macbeth fights against them with his army
The enemies move from the forest of Birnam to Dunsinane camouflaged, as forest à
one Augury is completed
his wife makes suicide
Macbeth is killed by Macduff, because he was born by Caesarean
Malcolm becomes new king of Scotland

Founts: http://www.william-shakespeare.de/biographie1.html
http://www.wikipedia.de/Elisabethanisches Theater.html

Dieses Referat wurde eingesandt vom User: Frettchen555

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