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Wales - 3.Version - Referat


1. Wales in gerneral one

part of UK
capital: Cardiff
one of the six celtic nations
languages: official language: english; welsh (equal to english since 1993 because For population source of regional identity)
two language policiy: result: signs in 2 languages; welsh can be used in education, studies, justice too
best connection to england of all part of UK but own culture -> want to segregate from england

2. geography

surface of 20779 km² -> smallest part of GB (slightly larger then saxony)
about 3 mln. inhabitants
is situated west of england; adjacent to irish sea in north; St. Georgs-Channel is west; bristol Channel in south
coast: characterized by cliffs, far expiring beaches; length: 1200 km
interior: Cambrian Mountains (nearly extend whole country)
characterized by spacious meadows, hilly landscapes, moors and mountains
highest mountain: Snowndon (1085m)
large parts are conservation area; 3 national parks (Brecon-Beacons-Nationalpark, Pembrokeshire-Coast-Nationalpark, Snowdonia-Nationalpark)
important rivers: River Dee, River Clwyd und River Conwy
climate: is situated in northern moderate area, changeable, maritime climate -> one of moistest countrys of europe
weather: often cloudy, wet and windy; warm summers and mild winters
rich deposits of coal, iron, copper, limestone, slate, lead, tin, zinc and silver -> deposits near coast (coal, iron, limestone) -> very important for industrial revolution in 18th/19th century (one of the biggest places of it)
big industrialisation because of coal

3. tourism and sights

sights: 7 wonder of Wales:
- Pistyll Rhaeadr: waterfall near by Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant with 73m Altitude difference
- St. Giles' Church: constructed in 16th century in Wreyham with big tower
- Overton yew trees: 21 European yew at the St. Mary's Church in Overton-on-Dee
- St. Winefride's Well Historically occupied medicinal water bath in Holywell
- Llangollen Bridge first stone bridge that spanned the River Dee
- Gresford bells: Church bells of All Saints Church in Gresford known for their pure sound
- Snowdon (highest mountain)
lot of castles: Beaumaris, Conwy Castle, Caernarfon und Harlech, similar in wise of construction (constructed by english Edward I. -> conquering rebellious Welsh )

4. policy and administration

between 1276 and 1283: Conquest of Wales by the King of England → final conquest of Welsh principalities → english (later britain) heir to the throne is wearing title Prince of Wales (current: Prince Charles (oldest son of queen)
since 20th century: welsh nationalism more important
- Party Plaid Cymru (1966 first seat in parliament) for more autonomy and revival of welsh language
-> more political idependece for Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales very important for Labour Party
1998 after referendum: start of nationalö Assembly of Wales
-> deciding about: health policy, education, housing policy, agrar policy, Fisheries, environmental protection, tourism, sports, cultural assets and economic development.
Since 1996: devided in 22 Unitary Authorities (districts for local administrative tasks)




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