UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UNO) - Referat
UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UNO)
1. What is the UNO?
Intergovernmental organisation established to prevent war
Founded on October 24,1945
Headquarters in New York City, USA
193 member countries (except: Vatican City and North Korea)
2. Purposes of the UNO
Provide international peace and security
Cultivate harmonious relations between all nations
Achieve cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character
3. General Assembly (GA)
Called the world parliament, main body of the UNO
All 193 Members are represented and each person has one vote
Decisions are made by as soon as there is a two-third majority
Members meet once a year
Main function: dealing with all international political issues, which come under the UNO-Charta (preventing war, enforce human rights, etc.)
4. Security Council (SC)
UNOs most powerful instrument
Exists to ensure international peace and security
15 members, 5 of them are permanent (USA, Russia, China, United Kingdom, France)
Non-permanent members are elected for two years
Permanent members of SC have veto power when it comes to decisions!
5. The Secretariat
Current UN-Secretary: Ban Ki-moon (since 2007)
Gets elected by the general assembly for 5 years
- gives a presentation about all problems in the world (once a year)
Can concentrate SCs attention on matters which can threat the worldwide peace and security (influence their decisions)
6. International Court of Justice
Judicial organ of the UNO
Based in The Hague, Netherlands
Consists of 15 judges, which are elected by the GA and SC for 9 years
Has an independent position in the UNO
Can only be active in disputes between two countries that have recognised their jurisdiction
7. Economic and Social Council
Consists of 54 nations
They meet once a year
- raising the general standard of living
- giving recommendations to GA to help solving economic and social (mainly health) problems
Germany is a member until 2017
8. Peacekeeping mission
Protect civilians in hazardous countries
Keep a strict watch on elections
Assist the disarmament
Protect and promote the human rights
Assist in restoring the rule of law in developing countries
9. Achievements of the UNO
Food has always been a significant problem regarding to the increase of population in the 21st century. With its organisation the World Food Program (WFP), the UNO feeds 104 million people in over 80 countries every year.
The UNHCR program is another success of the United Nations.
Since 1949 the UNO helped over 17 million asylum-seekers.
Right now they try to protect and assist 700 000 people who fled from the conflict in Syria.
Another program which has succeeded until now is the United Childrens Fund (UNICEF). With the help of UNICEF, the number of deaths for children under the age of 5 has decreased from almost 12 million in 1990 to 6.9 million in 2011.
By protecting elections, the UNO managed, with support of an international community, to overthrow Saddam Hussein's government and installed a system with which the new government has been completely elected by Iraq citizens.
The UN decreased the number of people who died from AIDS from 2.3 million in 2005 to 1.6 million in 2012
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