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The national parks (of America) - Referat

America’s national parks

The national parks of America are the endless treasures of the nature, because everyone of them is unique. The national park’s history is America’s history. The first national park on earth was the Yellowstone national park, which was founded in1872 and in the meantime is the biggest parksystem in the world.
Even in a majestic country as America they cause wondrousness again and again with their beauty and variety.
Meanwhile visitors come from all countries in the world.
The national parks aren’t considered museums, but as recreation for the body and the soul.

Shenandoah Nationalpark:
Its picture of nature is characterised by numerous paths, rivers and waterfalls.
The history of the human race and of this country is the history of Shenandoah.
First the area was used for hunting by the indians.
In 1900 much imigrants changed the landscape.
First the area was bought by private persons (individuals) and the state government of Virgina and then given as a present to the US government.
It can be reached by the Skyline Drive, which is a narrow highway over the Appalachen western Piedmont and eastern Shenandoah Valley. It was finished in 1935.

Everglades Nationalpark:
The water is the elixier of life. At the Everglades national park you can see much forests, ponds, rivers and swamps.
The Anhinga Trail (“Schlangenhalsvogelweg”), from which you can discover the flora’s and fauna’s endless variety, was named so, because in this park exist much types of birds.
For the ecosystem the alligator is an important part. After nearly complete extermination in the 60’s it’s protected. Meanwhile its actual strenght is getting better, but the variety of species’ conservation is a constant challenge. Another big problem is the upkeeping of the fresh water springs, from which the ecosystem is dependent, because it is used by more than 3million people and from a big agriculture.
In former times the Pahayokee was called “Grasfluss” from the indians.
It is in Florida and it’s the USA’s biggest subtropical wilderness.
The park is composed of extensive flats and a marsh, reaching from the Lake Okeechobee to the gulf of Mexico.
Weather and climate:
Throughout the year a mild climate exists.

Denali Nationalpark:
The Denali Nationalpark is marked by many glaciers and a destroyed landscape.
It’s a big nature reserve and home of the dallsheep, but you can also find a lot of mooses, caribous and grizzlies.
The park was established as Mt.McKingly Nationalpark on Feb. 26, 1917. The original park was designated a wilderness area and incorporated into Denali Nationalpark in 1980.
It is in Alaska (Northamerica).
Many glaciers, miles from anywhere, are only reachable by plane. Besides there are cliffs of ice, several hundred meters high, and the highest and steepest wall of rock on earth.

Mesa Verde Nationalpark:
The name translated means “green table” (“grüner Tisch”)and the national park is also named Anasazi Nationalpark, because approx. AD 600 the old indiantribe of the Anasazi settled down.
First they built clay huts and later up to three floors high buildings, which have got up to 50 rooms.
Therefore the Cliff Palace (“Felsenpalast”) is a good example. It’s already older than 700 years and the park’s largest preserved cliff dwelling.
Two big questions arise: firstly where were the Anasazi indians going to and why?
There is the theory, that there was a long period of drought with very fruitless land and so they went off to Arizona and New Mexico at the end of the 13thcentury. So, mainly the national park tells about old nations and their life style.

Grand Canyon Nationalpark:
It’s one of the seven Wonders of nature and a real geological spectacle of nature because of the big variety of species.
The whole area was a nature reserve before it became national park.
There are very much different animal species. Most of them you can see in spring.
Smaller animals have to be careful, because there are still cats of prey (e.g. pumas and silverlions) in the park, which are hated by the farmers, because they eat their cattle.
At the Kaibab Plateau much insects, birds, little mammals and plants live undisturbed.
In the West, during the heavy cloudbursts, you can see a spectacle of nature: the flooding from the flat lowers where millions of polliwogs are bustling about.
The area developed approx. 10 mill. years ago in Northarizona.
The oldest stone formations are older than 1,7mill. years. Several stone mouldings show a graphic digest of earth.
In 1540 the area was discovered by Spanish adventurers, but it was used thousands of years before, e.g. from the Anasazi indians, whose remains were found at more than 2000 places.
John Wesley Powell examined the area of today’s national park with the help of 10 men. They were floating along the Colorado River with their boats. But already before they
arrived, they were seriously damaged and the provisions were nearly complete washed away. After 13weeks they got back.
In 1919 the area was officially accepted as national park.
Its enormous dimensions cover a length with more than 444km, a breadth with 1,5 to 2,3km and at several places a depth up to 1500 and 1800m. It’s passed through by nearly 100m broad and more than 400km long Colorado River, which has got much rapids. But in the meantime its stream isn’t as powerful, because a storage-lake was built.
You can see many secluded ways and paths, which were cut into the rocks from the Anasazi indians millenniums ago.
At first sight it doesn’t seem so, but at Grand Canyon Nationalpark forestry is pursued, too.
Weather and climate:
You have to travel from Canada to Mexico, to experience the same quantity of vegetative and climatical zones.
In July and August is monsoon’s time (heavy rain), otherwise it’s arid and cloudy, nevertheless weather is never the same.
Snow, rain, fog in the morning, wind and sun take turns with each other and present plenty of live.
In April there is still snow, but only a few weeks later it’s molten, too. Because of the thermal winds and the pacific watery air many clouds arise, which burst open all at the same time leading to a heavy thunderstorm.
Every year more than 4mill. visitors come to this park.
An offer for tourists is e.g. the 2 days lasting walking-tour at the over 15km long Bright Angle Trail with an altitude difference from more than 1400m. Even for good hikers it’s an exceptional challenge. But you can also ride on a donkey.
The probably nicest way to experience the park is floating down the river with a boat. Thereby you should reckon with vehement rapids. Such tours take at least 6 days and are the most used attraction.
Another gladly used offer for seightseers are the mulecaravans. But they already start at 5.30AM, so that the sunrise could be viewed from the park’s most beautiful places.

Yosemite Nationalpark:
The Yosemite Nationalpark is a shop-window made of granite. Its landmark is the well-known granite monolith of Half Dome. The park has almost the same condition as 2000 years ago.
The brooks fall from the rocks like cascades and form the little size of the breathtaking waterfalls. Additionally there grow many sequoias, which will become nearly 300years old and can get a girth from 60-122m.
The bighornsheep is a very rare species, from which, in 1986, in the whole park only seven exemplars were counted.
The Yosemite Nationalpark is a place to rediscover nature and to recover with fishing and hiking.
In 1848 there was discovered gold and so suddenly much more settlements were built.
In 1851 the indians should be subjected, but that wasn’t successful, because they went away voluntariely, but not, without cursing the immigrants.
In 1864 it became law, to secure all valleys and forests (=park).
John Muir is probably the expertest mediator of the park. It was him, who woke interest in the park with a book in 1868.
In 1890 the park was enlarged and the third national park of America.
In 1916 the national-park-service was founded, which most important object is, to make people discover the nature by themselves.
The park, which is in California, measures3100km² and 12km in length. Besides it’s engraved by a nearly 920m deep canyon and more than 1200 paths.
The El Capitan is a nearly right-angled sloping mountain, wich is climbed by people from all over the world and at which the Yosemite mountaineering school’s pupils are allowed to test themselves.
The Yosemite Fall is thirteen times higher than the Niagara Falls, so it’s Northamerica’s highest and the world second highest waterfall.
In the south is the oldest and most popular winter sports area in California, the Badger Pass.
Weather and climate:
In spring the melting of snow begins. In the middle of August all waterfalls are only rills, exept the Bridal veil Fall.
Every year more than 3mill. people, in every season, come to visit it. There is an originally rebuilded indian village, which inspires tourists with guidances and a museum from June to August .
But for real experiencing the park, you should camp or ride on a horse.

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