The Ottoman Empire - Referat
The Ottoman Empire and the golden apple Constantinople
1) The origin of the Turks and the religion of the Turks
2) The golden Years of the Ottoman Empire
3) Conquering the golden apple with Fatih II.
4) After the conquering
The origin of the Turks ( ottomans )
In addition to the Arabs and the Persians, the Turks were the third major nation in Islam. The original home of the Turks was Central Asia. Some historian says that the ancestor of the Turks are the Mongolians. The Turks lived there as nomads. The first religion of the Turks was the Shamanism. In the Shamanism you are believing to one god. The Turks created their religion themselves. The Islam got their religion later on, when the Ottoman I. created the Ottoman Empire in the year 1299. The first capital of the ottoman Empire was Bursa. The Ottomans got stronger and stronger and they conquered more and more territories. Here are some important examples: Persian Empire, The important town Jerusalem and later on the conquering of the North African coast with Spain.
The golden Years of the Ottoman Empire
At this time, in the years 660 to 1453, the most important city of Europe was Constantinople. Because Constantinople was a rich town, which had new techniques, Constantinople was the power of the Mediterranean (Mittelmeer) and the town was a big metropolis witch 700.000 inhabitants. . Constantinople was very important for The Ottoman Empire. Many armies tried to conquer Constantinople, but they couldn’t win the battles against the Byzantium Soldiers. The Byzantium Soldiers were very educated and they had very good weapons.
As well the Turks tried to conquer Constantinople years before. Constantinople was the key for the sea. They called Constantinople the golden apple, because the town was so rich and it was a holy town for the Ottomans. At this time, Constantinople was the richest city of European continent. The Ottoman Soldiers and other soldiers from other empires couldn’t conquer the big city, because of the high and big walls, which the Byzantines built to defend themselves. The problem for the Ottomans was it, that the defending walls were in water.
The Ottomans couldn’t walk to the wall, because there was the sea between the land and the wall.
Conquering the golden apple with Fatih II.
All sultans dream was it, to conquer Constantinople. But only Fatih II or he is named Fatih the Conqueror as well could do it.
In the war between the Ottoman Empire and the East Roman Empire, Fatih II. invented a big canon to destroy the big walls. The Byzantine soldiers didn’t know that, but they had an other great trap. The cannon wasn‘t only used for the war of Constantinople. Murad II. had used the cannon as well in the first Cosova war. This cannon was very helpful for the Ottomans and very terrible for the Byzantium soldiers. The Byzantium hoped that the wall would be hold out the cannon. But the Ottomans were a little bit cleverer and shot man times in the same point of the wall. Bu in this front, where the Ottomans attacked Constantinople, was to difficult, because the Byzantium soldiers defended very good. The Ottomans must reach the East side of the town to have the key. Because the Ottomans came with very big ships, which were very powerful. The Byzantium soldiers were clever as well and had a trap for the enemies.
They marked off the sea from the west side with a big, strong metal chain, which the Ottoman Soldiers couldn’t see. The Ottoman soldiers would attack the town with their ships, but the ships couldn’t go near the fortress (Festung). Three days, the Ottomans waited for a new plan to conquer Constantinople. After three days Fatih II., the sultan from the Ottomans came wit a new plan. Their was a hill near the towers form the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans should create a new wonder in this battle. The Byzantium Soldiers would be surprised, when they would see the Ottoman Ships in the sea before their fortress. The Ottomans brought their ships around the hill to the water. It heard very easy, but there were many problems the Ottomans got.
At first they tried to push the ships on the grass. But it didn’t work. Then they pulled the ships with their most powerful soldiers and fighters. But with this method they damaged the ships, because their were many stones. In one day, all soldiers cleaned the hill from stones, would and other rubbishes. Than they distributed the total oil they had on their ships to the hill. Than they pushed their ships around the hill into the water. It is very hard to believe, but it was so. We couldn’t believe it, when we see the big pyramids in Egypt. It is very fascinating.
When the Byzantine soldiers woke up in the morning, they saw hundreds of ships on the sea. They couldn’t believe it. “There was a chain, how could they reach to here? “ they said.
So the Ottomans conquered Constantinople in 1453 and changed the name of the city to “Istanbul”. Now Istanbul was the capital of the new Ottoman Empire. After the conquering of Constantinople, the Ottomans created a special army, which they called o German “Yanitscharen”. The Janissary were the new special power of the Ottoman Army. The Janissary had special bows and arrows, which were build with special techniques and with hard metal. The Janissary force was created by the Sultan Murad I from Christian slaves in the 14th century. They were educated in a army school, when the Ottomans caught them in wars. They must to fight for the Ottomans, but they got the high respect from the Sultan.
After the conquering
The Ottomans lived in peace with their inhabitants of Constantinople. This empire was the first Islamic empire, where two cultures and two religions lived together under one roof. There were churches and mosques side by side. Fatih. II ordered to live in peace with the inhabitants and respect the Christian religion. He said: When somebody will kill one of them, he would lose his head. I know its sounds very brutal, but Fatih II. said to his men and women, that they had to respect all humans. And that was right. The Christies hadn’t to be Muslims or something on. They could live with the religion they like.
I hope we can live so today in all countries and continents our world. The friendship of religions is very important for al of us I think.
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