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Syria - Referat



Syria is a state in the Near East. It is half the size of Germany and has about 21 million inhabitants. The capital is Damaskus and the head of state is Baschar al-Assad.

In 2011, after the Arabic Spring, started the civil war in Syria and until now it hasnít been stopped. About 5.7 million people have left their home country. This civil war is taking place with the participation of international powers. After the uprisings in Tunisia at the end of 2010 and the uprisings in Egypt at the beginning of 2011, protests of the Syrian opposition also took place in Syria. The protests started very small and then they turned into riots, public buildings were set on fire and demonstrators were killed by the security forces. The protests spread more and more to other cities. Hundreds of people died, thousands were arrested and the military even used tanks. People started to flee to Turkey and Lebanon. The demonstrators wanted the resignation of the president Baschar al-Assad. Special forces from Iran and Lebanon began to support the government, the president in Syria. The religious-political aspect of this conflict became even clearer. The number of refugees increased and Turkey began to build refugee camps. The initially small protests had developed into a civil war. A civil war between Assadís soldiers and policemen on one side and the Free Syrian Army and other rebel groups on the other. Also in Germany more and more Syrians applied for asylum.

The first terrorist attacks began in the new year 2012. The terrorists didnít attack only the Syrian military they also killed Christians just due to their religion.

In this time already the half of the population were refugees. Syrians started to try to cross the Mediterranean Sea with boats to escape to Europe. There were so many Syrian refugees that some European countries were already overburdened. In 2013 there were up to 6.000 people who left Syria every day. They fled to all over the world. There were so many refugees that the police ,in the countries where the refugees fled to, started to kill them. In Germany, a programme was decided to allow 5000 particularly vulnerable Syrians to enter the country. The number of the refugees who already died in the Mediterranean Sea increased too. Europe took in more and more Syrians. Until this time more than 2.3 Million Syrians had to leave their country. Most European countries were ready to take in more refugees than there were places to stay.

But some countries started to forbid the immigration of refugees from Syria and Donald Trump signed the ďTravel BanĒ to ban the refugees from Syria from entering the USA.

In 2014 another peace conference failed and Germany agreed to destroy the Syrian chemical weapons.

The terrorist attacks were spreading all over the world. A Russian passenger plane crashed due to a bomb and the Islamic state admitted it. France and England participated with air raids and much more against the IS. Whether with the reception of refugees or with various attacks , now the whole world took part in this first small protest and now big civil war.

At the beginning of 2016 a ceasefire was reached to facilitate further peace talks. The fights against the IS and the Al-Nusra front, however, continued. This ceasefire didnít last very long. Although Russia wanted to withdraw the Russian armed forces from Syria, the air raids of the Russians didnít stop.

Several hospitals as well as aid organizations were bombed and more and more people died. There were attacks on various Syrian cities, then peace was made and a ceasefire was agreed and after not so long the attacks continued again and again.

At the end of 2016 a ceasefire was agreed again and it seemed as if everyone would adhere to it. There was some peace returned to Syria and it seemed as if there was an end in sight.

After many failed peace talks, there were again air attacks from the USA under the leadership of Donald Trump. Turkey also didnít hold back any longer and bombed positions of the Kurdish peopleís defense units, although theses were allies of the USA in the fight against the IS. On the 7th
of December the President of Russia announced that Syria is liberated from the IS terrorists and that Russian troops would be withdrawn from the country now. In 2018 Turkey didnít stop and continued to take action against Syria. It was just everyone against everyone and it came again to massive attacks. Nobody was afraid to kill each other anymore.

This is the situation at the beginning of 2018 but how does it look like today?
Syria is considered the scene of the most dramatic conflict of our time. The US president Donald Trump announced that he wants to withdraw all his troops from Syria immediately, as he won the war against the Islamic State in Syria. The American military and Republican politicians criticized this decision. The four countries Russia, Turkey, Germany and France are negotiating together for a political solution in Syria. Above all, the Europeans want to push through a constitutional reform in Syria, against which the Assad regime is resisting. Russia wants exactly the opposite and is therefore on the side of the regime.

Assad is trying to start the reconstruction of the country but the costs of the reconstruction are estimated very high. There are still many attacks in individual cities of the country and you can hear something new every day in the news.

Even if the war isnít over yet, more than 1 million Syrian refugees have already returned to their home country. Many refugees want to leave Germany and travel illegal to Turkey. Many countries already have refugee camps where the refugees can live for the first time until they start a new life in the new country because they had to leave their home country. Unfortunately, there are many scandals around the refugees. For example in Turkey, trafficking of women developed because of the large number of Syrian refugees. In their need refugee families sold their daughters to Turkish men. And then they experienced violence and discrimination at the side of these men. Since the civil war started there have been so many scandals about underage refugees being imprisoned without any reason. Many children have been separated from their parents and imprisoned upon entering the country. Whether from health centres or even from private persons who were against the refugees.

Another scandal was about the ďZero-toleranceĒ policy of Donald Trump and it was on the news for a long time. Photos of children in cages shocked the people. There was a lot of public pressure on Trump so that he announced he will never separate children from their parents again. But this was just a lie and the number of the imprisoned children increased. An example for this is the small Litzy who was imprisoned in an empty supermarket without any bed or something like this. Many children reported that they were fixed on their beds and injected with psychotropic drugs against their will and without their parents of course. Violent murders and numerous sexual abuses in camps like this also took place.

Many of the refugees had to see family members or friends being killed during the war. Especially refugee children suffer from the experiences and are traumatized. Host governments try everything to let the children participate in school education. Nevertheless, 43% of refugees children still have no opportunity to learn.




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