Sights of Australia - Referat
Uluru (also called Ayers Rock or The Rock) is a large rock formation in the middle of Australia, in the Northern Territory. It´s place is called red desert. It is located in Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, 350 km southwest of Alice Springs. It is the second-largest monolith (monolith means a very big stone) in the world (after Mount Augustus, also in Australia but in the West), more than 349 m high and 9 km around. It also extends 6 km into the ground. It was described by explorer Ernest Giles in 1872 as "the remarkable pebble".
The local community requests that visitors respect the sacred status (Heiligtum of the Aboriginies) of Uluru by not climbing the rock, with signs posted to this effect. In 1983 the former Prime Minister of Australia, Bob Hawke, promised to respect the request from the community that climbing Uluru be prohibited, but broke his promise when title was handed to the traditional owners in 1985 because access for tourists to climb Uluru was made a condition before they could receive the title. The climb crosses an important dreaming track, which has been a cause of sadness and distress among traditional owners. Neverthless, they are unable to prohibit climbing, and climbing Uluru is a popular attraction for a large fraction of the many tourists who visit it each year. A rope handhold makes the climb easier, but it is still quite a long and steep climb and many intended climbers give up partway up. There are several deaths a year as a direct result of climbing the rock, mainly from heart failure.
The Flinders Ranges link the Gulf St Vincent to the outback of South Australia. The scenery is out of this world, particularly during spring when the wildflowers are blossoming. Bush walking is one of the most popular activities in this area, including walks around the Arkaroola Mount Painter Wildlife Sanctuary, Mount Remarkable National Park and Wilpena Pound. There are also some fabulous rock carvings in the area which are well worth visiting.
Heading further north again, there is a great lookout just before you reach Hawker, called the Jervis Hill Lookout. The views are amazing from here allowing you to see right over to Wilpena Pound. Near Hawker you can also visit the Aboriginal rock paintings in the Youambulla Rock Shelter, as well as take the scenic drive along the Moralana Scenic Route. There are several places to stay in Hawker if you want to break up your journey to the Wilpena Pound.
The 100-year-old vines are highly treasured not only for their age, but because many of the original species were almost wiped out by the phylloxera virus overseas during the 19th Century
The Barossa (just an hour's drive from Adelaide) is today one of the most famous wine regions in the world, with 50 wineries ranging from some of Australia's largest companies through to small independent vignerons - and most offer tastings at their cellar doors. Overall, South Australia produces 50 % of Australia's wines and 70 % of the nation's wine exports. Every year nearly one million people visit the State's cellar doors, spending $342 million in the process. Sixty % of all those cellar door tourists visit the Barossa, making it the State's most popular wine region.
The 1,970 square kilometre Barossa was mapped out in 1838 by the colony's Surveyor-General Colonel William Light. Originally named after the Spanish town of Barrosa, where the English were victorious over the French in the Spanish Civil War, it was later mispelt by its Lutheran settlers and came to be known as Barossa.
Kakadu National Park:
The name 'Kakadu' comes from an Aboriginal floodplain language called Gagudju which was one of the languages spoken in the north of the park at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Kakadu is a cultural landscape. It was shaped by the spiritual ancestors of Aboriginal people during the Creation Time. These ancestors or 'first people' journeyed across the country creating landforms, plants and animals. They brought with them laws to live by: ceremony, language, kinship and ecological knowledge. They taught the man live with the land and look after the country.
'If you respect the land, then you will feel the land.
Your experience will be one that you
cannot get anywhere else in the world.'
Brian Baruwei - Wurrkbarbar clan. Aboriginal traditional owner.
Aborigines have lived in Kakadu for at least 25,000 years (perhaps as long as 50,000 years), making the park one of the few World Heritage sites to be listed for both natural and cultural reasons. Today, Aboriginal people work in partnership with the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service in determining park policy and young Aborigines are trained as rangers and guides. Learning about Aboriginal legends and sacred sites enhances visitors appreciation of Kakadu.
Well known for being home to Australia's best snow sports, it is outside this peak season the mountains shake off the snow to expose their real beauty. Spectacular peaks, clear mountain streams and the clean, crisp high country air provide a brilliant backdrop for your holiday.
In the warmer months, when fields of wildflowers bloom, you can become snap-happy on horseback in the high plains or enjoy the impressive scenery on a bushwalk along the rooftop of Australia. Melting snow generates a surge for white-water rafters, trout fill the streams and the vast lakes offer great water skiing or the outlook for the perfect picnic.
The Snowies offer an abundance of natural and cultural attractions and activities. These experiences are enhanced by all the visitor services you'd expect from a quality destination including a wide range of accommodation and dining options.
Sydney Opera House:
At the bottom of Macquarie Street is the Sydney Opera House and it lives up to expectations, especially the outside. Although it was designed back in 1957, it still seems futuristic – nature and architecture simultaneously in contrast and harmony. Forget the cynics who have described it as ‘albino turtles mating’ or ‘nuns packing into a scrum’ - its soaring white sails and one million light-reflecting tiles are magnificent. Inside, it’s a very user-friendly building and it’s not all opera, with the four main auditoriums offering dance, plays, films and cocerts for example AC/DC was one of the first bands having a concert there. Sometimes there are markets on Sundays.
There are a number of restaurants in the Opera House complex, catering to all budgets. Personally, you can go there for lunch to enjoy the day view rather than the night-light reflections. The Sydney Cove Oyster Bar, along the walkway to the Quay, is a delightful spot to stop, sit and enjoy oysters or a cheese platter, a chilled white wine, the view and the passing parade, with the sound of little waves lapping below you.
Great Barrier Reef:
The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef in the world, roughly parallel to the coast of Queensland, Australia, for almost 2,000km. Australia has almost 1/5th of the world's reef area and most is located in the GBR.Washed by the warm waters of the South-West Pacific Ocean the perfect environment is created for the world's largest system of coral reefs. The Great Barrier Reef is of such pristine condition that it was listed by the World Heritage Trust as a protected sight and is therefore managed by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Authority to ensure that its beauty is maintained for many generations to come.
Visitors in their thousands come to marvel at the spectacular sight seeing opportunities that is unique to this area. The Wet Tropics World Heritage listed Rainforest on one side and the Great Barrier Reef on the other. No other place in the world offers such diversity so close to each other.
Off the coastline are outer edge ribbon reefs which may be up to 25 kilometres long. This is the outer limits of the continental shoreline of prehistoric times. The ribbon reefs can be seen by taking one of the daily outer reef cruises offered by local operators. One of the best ways to view the reef is to take a low flying scenic flight over it, especially at low tide where you'll see the breadth and diversity of this great living wonder.
The waters of the Great Barrier Reef provide the world's busiest and most varied marine habitats. Marine life is in abundance. From the many species of coral to the sought after Black Marlin and all sizes and species of fish in-between. The varied colours of the reef's fish and other marine life will astound the visitor with colour combinations that artists haven't even dreamed of. It is the largest of the world’s 552 World Heritage Areas, covering 347,000 km There are more than 2800 catalogued reefs in the area.
Although stretching more than 2000 kilometres offshore from Queensland, it is only at Cape Tribulation, just north of Port Douglas that the reefs come right to the shore and meets the tropical rainforests of the Wet Tropics. With over 1000 islands which are easily accessible from North Queensland and coastal cities like Cairns and Port Douglas. The coral islands are very popular tourist attractions. Some even have varied vegetation including rainforest and are encircled by the coral reefs. Accommodation on the islands that are inhabited ranges from camping grounds to bungalows and luxurious resorts.
Fraser Island is the world's largest sand island. It is World Heritage Listed and has become an eco tourism venue now that its timber and sand mining industries have been abandoned.
Fraser Island attained its World Heritage Listing in December 1992 in recognition of the island's exceptional sand dune systems, its rainforests on sand, and its beautiful freshwater lakes. But in the twenty-first century the future of the island is in some doubt.
The western shores of the island form a boundary of the Port of Maryborough, once a major immigrant and industrial port encompassing much of the area now marketed by tourism authorities as the Fraser Coast. The island is not renowned as a shopping destination, but does lend its name to the Fraser Coast Commerce Plazza which promotes the region's businesses online.
Cape Tribulation National Park:
Covering 16 965 ha this is a sight of breathtaking beauty with rugged mountain ranges rising sharply behind the narrow coastal strip, dense rainforest tumbling down the mountains to the beaches, and a bewilderingly rich variety of flora. The rainforest boasts extremely ancient species of fern which have been on earth for over 100 million years, including both the beautiful flowering Idiospermum australiense and the Angiopteris, the world's largest fern.
At Cape Tribulation the National Parks and Wildlife Service have made life easy for visitors by providing a cement path and boardwalk through the rainforest to the headland where a lookout point affords excellent views across the bay. For those wishing to explore further there are a number of excellent rainforest walking trails. Many of the local tour operators offer excursions into the rainforest.
Tucked away at the far south of the country and across the untamed waters of Bass Strait, lies Tasmania a place rich with heritage and spectacular natural history.
Many of its sights from the old penal colony of Port Arthur on the southern Tasman Peninsula to the city of Launceston in the North East maintain their pioneer and colonial heritage. Buildings of elegant Victorian style grace the streets of Richmond, near Hobart, and the ruins of the old government house of Highfield, at Stanley, stand proudly on a bluff beside the ocean.
Farming of all kinds on the land and in the sea is a successful industry for Tasmania. Merino sheep farming produces fine wools, dairy lands are common on the lush pasturelands in the north and freshwater trout and salmon are plentiful in the rivers and streams. Offshore, seafoods such as lobsters and oysters are a delicacy and in demand across the country.
In the South East of the state lies the ancient Tasmania Wilderness. These age-old forests are thick with giant trees that are hundreds, if not thousands, of years old. The special woods of the fragrant Huon Pine forests are highly revered and sought after for their fine timber qualities.
Lake St Clair, the country’s deepest lake, was literally carved out of the earth by ice glaciers thousands of years ago and many waterfalls, lush ferneries and ancient mossy boulders create a true rainforest wonderland.
Great Ocean Road:
The Great Ocean Road leads to Victoria's magnificent south-west coast, following the coastline for 300 km from Torquay to Warrnambool. Commenced in 1919 and completed in 1932, the road was dedicated to the memory of all those who fought in the First World War and was actually built by returned servicement using only picks and shovels. Its completion marked the end of a long history of isolation when the only access to Melbourne and the western coastal communities was by boat. The panoramic views of the Great Ocean Road are breathtaking. The road takes you along cliff edges, around hilly slopes, down onto the edge of beaches, across river estuaries and up to breathtaking headlands. The scenery changes so dramatically that there are three identifiable sections to the road - the Surf Coast, the Otway Ranges and the Shipwreck Coast. And, with the declaration of parts of the region as State and National Parks, preservation of the natural attractions we enjoy today is guaranteed for future generations.
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