Roman Realm (Römisches Reich) - Referat
Holy Roman realm (Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium) was the official name for the rule range of the Roman-German emperors from the Middle Ages to the year 1806. The name of the realm is derived from the requirement of the medieval rulers to continue the tradition of the antique Roman realm and to legitimize the rule as God holy will in the Christian sense. For the distinction of 1871 created German ones the Reich it is called also old persons the realm. The realm formed in 10. Century under the dynasty of the Ottonen from the formerly karolingischen east Franconia realm. The name Sacrum Imperium is for the first time documentary occupied for 1157 and the title Sacrum Romanum Imperium for 1254. Since that 15. Century became generally accepted gradually the additive of German nation (lat. Nationis Germanicæ). Due to its pre and a supranational character never developed the realm to a national state of modern coinage, but remained a monarchisch led, staendisch coined/shaped thing from emperor and realm conditions with only few common institutions for realm. The expansion and the borders of the holy Roman realm changed in the course of the centuries substantially. In its largest expansion the realm covered nearly the entire area today's central and parts of south Europe. Since the early modern times the realm was structurally no more capable of offensive war guidance, power extension and expansion. Since that time legal protection and peace keeping were regarded as its substantial purposes. The realm should provide for peace, stability and the peaceful solution of conflicts, by containing the dynamics of power: Subjects should it against the arbitrariness of the national gentlemen and smaller realm conditions against law breakings of more powerful conditions and the emperor protect. Since since 1648 also neighbouring states were integrated as realm conditions into its constitutional system, the realm fulfilled besides a peace-keeping function in the system of European powers. That the realm since center 18. Century its from the expansive policy of internal and outside powers to protect ever less its largest deficit and one of the causes of its fall were able, were members. By conquests Napoleon and the establishment of the Rhine federation resulting from it it had become almost incompetent to act. The holy Roman realm of German nation expired on 6 August 1806 with the resignation of the realm crown by emperors Franz II.
A character of the realm the holy one Roman realm from the east Frankish realm had developed. It was pre and supranational thing, a leaning realm and person federation state, which never developed to a national state as for instance France or Great Britain and for idea-historical reasons also never when such wanted to be understood. The regierungsgewalt of the realm lay neither alone in the hand of the emperor still alone with the cure princes or the whole of a person federation like the realm day. The realm can be arranged neither as Federal State nor as confederation of states. It was not bare aristocracy, in addition, no Oligarchie. The realm combined characteristics all these systems of government in itself nevertheless. The history of the realm was coined/shaped by the controversy over its character. Just as little as it ever succeeded to break the regional self-will of the individual territories the realm into a loose confederation of states disintegrated. The realm over-curved many territories as "roof federation" and gave to living together the different national gentlemen realm-legally given basic conditions. These quasi-independent, but not sovereigns of prince and duchies recognized the emperor as at least idealistic realm head on and were subjected, simultaneous in addition, by king choice, choice surrender, realm days and other staendische agencies in the realm politics involved the realm laws, the realm jurisdiction and the resolutions of the realm daily and could these for itself affect. Contrary to other countries were the inhabitants not directly the emperor subject. Each realm member, thus each territory, which was realm direct, had his own national gentleman, in the case of the realm cities municipal authorities.
The name of the realm [ Bearbeiten]Durch the name the claim on the follow-up of the antique Roman realm was laid and thus as it were on a universal rule. At the same time one was afraid the arrival of the prophecies of the prophet Daniel, which had predicted that it would come four world realms to give and to it the anti-Christian on earth - the Apokalypse should begin. Therefore the Roman realm was not allowed to go down. The increase by the additive "holy" stressed the Gottesgnadentum of the Kaisertums and legitimized the rule. With the coronation/culmination of the Franconia king Karl of the large one to the emperor by Pope Leo III. in the year 800 this placed its realm into the follow-up of the antique Roman Imperiums, the Translatio in such a way specified Imperii, although historically and after the self understanding the christlich-orthodox Byzantine realm from the old Roman realm had developed; in opinion of the Byzantiner the new western "Roman realm" was an appointed and a illegitimes.
Interestingly enough the realm carried 10 at the time of its emergence in the middle. Century not yet the descriptor holy. The first emperor Otto I. and its to successors saw themselves and as deputies of God on ground connection and thus as first Beschuetzer of the church were regarded. There was thus no necessity particularly to emphasize the holyness of the realm. The realm was called further Regnum Francorum orientalium or briefly Regnum Francorum. In the Kaisertitulaturen of the Ottonen emerge late name components transferred to the entire realm however already. Thus "emperor of the Romans" is in the documents of Otto IITH from the year 982, which developed during his Italy campaign, the Titulatur Romanorum imperator augustus. And petrol III. increased in its Titulatur over all religious and lay powers, by even calling itself, similarly to the Pope and thereby over this raising, humilityful "farmhand Jesu Christi" and "farmhand of the Apostel" later. This sakrale radiant emittance of the Kaisertums was attacked by the papacy in the Investiturstreit from 1075 to 1122 substantial and destroyed in the long run, and as the Popes in the time tried to subordinate the Imperium to the Sacerdotium developed in the kanzlei Friedrichs Ith, called Barbarossa, which term sacrum imperium, by which the independence of the Imperiums from the papacy was stressed and justified welfare-historically. For the first time it is testified for the year 1157. Perhaps it concerned here a conscious resumption lateantique Roman traditions. This is however disputed in the research, since it also around one particularly "pilotfish themselves" term act could, particularly since in that Antique one did not apply the Roman realm as sacrum, but only the person of the Kaisers.[1 ] In the Interregnum so mentioned from 1250 to 1273, when it did not succeed of the three selected kings to become generally accepted against the others were holy connected the requirement, the successor of the Roman realm to be, with the descriptor for designation Sacrum Romanum Imperium (German holy Roman realm). Latin idiom Sacrum Imperium Romanum is occupied 1254, in German-language documents arose for the first time it approximately hundred years later since the time emperor Karls IV.. Calculated during the emperorless time in the middle 13. Century the universal claim to power was thus the more sounding announced - if certainly also in the following time to it little changed. The additive Nationis Germanicae appeared only in the late Middle Ages around 1450, since the realm essentially extended to the area of the German linguistic area. 1486 were used this Titulatur in the land peace law emperor Friedrichs III.. This additive was for the first time officially used in the year 1512 in the preamble of the parting of the realm daily in Cologne. Emperor Maximilian I. had loaded the realm conditions among other things for preservation [... ] of the holy Roman realm Teut nation. Until 1806 holy was often Roman realm of German nation the official designation of the realm, those as SRI for Sacrum Romanum Imperium on Latin or H. Roem. Richly o. Ae.[2 ] on German was shortened. Both last large legal instrument concerning the realm, the realm deputation main conclusion of 1803 and the dissolution explanation emperor Franz II., use however then the term German Reich. From holyness or universal power anyway already for a long time no more speech could be.
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