Partition of India - Referat
India was since 1756, the age of the European expansion, a British colony and should become an important part of the British world empire. Also about 1900 the rule did not seem to be in danger. With the help of a competent administration the British People succeeded in having peace and order in India. For better control extensive railroad networks and telegraph nets were created.
However, it came already in 1919 to the first mass demonstrations. A new law, the so-called Rowlatt-Act permitted it to the British government every suspicious person was arrested without court negotiations. Besides the Indians should fight for Great Britain in the First World War. This decision was made over the heads of the Indian population. The INC (Indian Nation Congress) was founded in 1885 and organised on the 13th of April, 1919 a demonstration without violence. However, there were also other demonstrator which acted less peaceful. As a result British soldiers started shooting and killed 379 men and women. Besides, many others were injured.
In 1920 Mahatma Gandhi took over the guidance of the party. Now she became the most important institution in the fight for independence. First the British People tolerated even the "congressional party", because they saw in her an instrument which could be used for the modernisation of India - the abolition of the caste system, the religious prejudices. However, they soon had to see that the congressional party did not want to promote British, but only Indian interests. Anti-British excesses before the outbreak of the First World War caused that the English colonial officials decided against the stronger participation of Indians in the management.
In order to push the peaceful resistance Ghandi started a campaign called Non-Cooperation. All Indians should refuse the cooperation with the British People and should not work any more for them. He called for the boycott. The demonstrators should accept punishments without striking back. For the unity of the country Hindus and Muslims should work together and forget her conflicts with each other. The boycott worked, although many hundred thousands came to the prison. Also Gandhi had to spend several months in Prison. Not all demonstrators behaved peacefully. This is why Gandhi wanted to finish the campaign. To lend stress to his demand, he stepped in a hunger strike. After he had fasted 21 days the boycott ended. However, Gandhi was arrested, although he had finished at last the campaign. The Britons had shifted their burdons of war on India: The taxes were raised, Indian soldiers had to defend Great Britain in Northern France. In these measurements the nationalists saw an offence against the conditions under which India had accepted the British rule. The British Peole were afraid of a mass rebellion, in panic they shot more than 300 unarmed Indian demonstrators.
However, the Independence of India could not proceed because the non-cooperation was not observed.Besides there were disagreements between Muslims and Hindus, because both believed that only the interests of one party woulde be satisfied. Great Britain used this disagreement for its advantage. Now they were ready to leave the internal management to Indians, because they hoped to break the closed anti-British front by giving important positions to single Indians. However, India should remain bound to England because they wanted to dispose of the Indian army. Nevertheless, these plans could not be realized becaus of the the outbreak of the second world war and the forced recruitment of Indian soldiers. The population did not agree and therefore the INC started the so-called „Quit-India-action“. Suddenly riots started all over the country and the British people answered with massive military actions. Another event was the foundation of the Moslem's league, which has been the counterpart of the Hindu INC. They wanted to create an independent Muslim's state in the north of India.
The situation became out of control for the British people and therefore they agreed to form a provisonal government which should help to relize the independence. The leader of the Moslem's league refused to belong to them because it only consited of members of the INC. As a result heavy riots started between Hindus and Muslims. More than 4000 people were killed. An aggreement between both parties could not be accomplished. After the leading INC members had agreed on the division of India, the country was splitted in Pakistan and India. Both countries became independent.
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