OXFAM: Sudan - Referat
Contents: 1. Human rights
2. Geography of the Sudan
5. Crisis in the Sudan/Darfur
6. Work of Oxfam in the Sudan
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
entitled-have the right to
property-stuff you own
jurisdictional status-system of law
sovereignty-system of government
degrading-under the honour of a person
2. In the Sudan they speak Arabic and the capital is Khartoum. It is an Islamic republic and the head of state is Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir. This country has a area of circa 2.5 millions km≤. That means that the Sudan is more than seven times bigger than Germany! It has about 40 millions inhabitants, that is the half of the population of Germany. The Sudanese pay with the Sudanese Dinar.
The Republic Sudan is enclosed by many countries, Egypt, Libya, Chad, the Central African Republic, Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Eritrea and Ethiopia. The Sudan is the country with the biggest area in Africa. On average the life expectancy in the Sudan for men is only 54 years and for women only 58 years. The Sudanese speak a lot of different languages and the religion of the state is the Islam. About 70% of the population are Muslims and the rest are Christians or they have other religions. The Muslims live in the north of the Sudan and the others live in the South. Between them is a big civil war.
head of state-chief of a country
3. I think you heard of the big crisis in the Sudan. There is a civil war. Only in the last few months 200.000 people died! And 2 million people had to flee. That is very topical and I think it is important that I tell you something about it. Oxfam, the big organisation which fights for the human rights, is one of few organisations which are allowed to work in the Sudan. It is a very difficult work but they do it.
topical-something what happens now
4. Oxfam is an international organisation which develops and performs projects for humanity against famines. It was founded in England in 1942 as the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief by Canon Theodore Richard Milford (1896-1987). The aim was to bring nutrition to Greek which was occupied by Germany. In 1965 the organisation changed its name to Oxfam. The Ox comes from Oxford and the fam from famine.
Oxfam has many shops. In 1947 the first shop opened in the Broad Street in Oxford in England. Today there are more than 800 shops in Great Britain and 19 in Germany. They sell second-hand goods and with the profit the support the humanity work in other countries.
famine-if lot of people donít have enough food and are almost starving
relief-a fight against something
occupy-besetzen (a country)
goods-things to sell
5. I think the biggest crisis in the Sudan at the moment is in Darfur. It is in the West of the Sudan near to the neighbour country Chad. There is an very old conflict between the Arabic nomads and the sedentary Africans. The Africans are oppressed by the Arabs. They are richer and they have the power in the government in Khartoum. Of course the Africans do not want this and in 2003 they started to destroy buildings from the state, like schools, hospitals, etc. There a two big groups of militias. The SLM/A (Sudanese People's Liberation Movement/Army) and the JEM (Justice and Equality Movement). The government fights against these two groups and there is a civil war in the Sudan now. In the last months 200.000 people died in this war! And there are some robbers who have weapons and they attack people and take their money and other things. This multiplies the chaos in the Sudan.
Over the last two years two millions of people had to flee from their homes. Some of these IDPís are living in camps or in temporary shelters in villages in Darfur now.
IDP-a person who flees
Shelter-a house which is very small and not very comfortable
Chad-Tschad (a country close to the Sudan)
sedentary-if you have a place where you live and stay
militia-group of armed citizens
6. Oxfam does a lot to improve the conditions for the people in the Sudan. But I will only tell you what they do in Darfur.
They help especially the IDPís in the camps in Darfur and Chad. Although there are a lot of problems like few security or bad roads, Oxfam is helping over 700.000 people in Darfur and Chad! They work together with other organisations to fight against diseases and to save lives.
One important task of them is the water. They build latrines and washing facilities. Oxfam also distributes essential items like buckets and canisters for carrying water, soap, sanitary cloths, clean clothes and blankets.
Oxfam works closely with communities, and in particular with womenís groups, to know what they need.
Another big point of them is education. With the help of volunteers they teach them how important sanitation and personal hygiene is. And they recruit persons to keep toilets and washing facilities clean and some others to guard water sources. Oxfam works a lot with children. They use plays and school activities to teach them how important hygiene is.
But they not only work to keep people healthy, they also work for security in Darfur. Oxfam teaches women how to build efficient stoves. These stoves need only the half of firewood than a normal stove. So women do not have to do so much trips to search for firewood which are very dangerous. And it also helps the environment.
Oxfam also helps on malaria prevention. They distribute mosquito nets. So not so many people die from malaria.
latrine-a bad and cheap toilet
essential-you really need it
bucket-a container for liquid
recruit-to give a person a task
7. I think now you heard enough about this topic. Of course I could talk hours about this but now you got a little view in it. My opinion is that the Sudanese government offends against a lot of human rights and it is important that organisations like Oxfam work against it. But unfortunately only few organisations are allowed to work in the Sudan and these few cannot possibly help everybody. But it is important that at least some people help and I hope that the situation will improve soon, because as every war this war only destroys. Now also the United Nations try to find a peaceful solution for the Sudanese. As I said the government in the Sudan offends against many human rights but what the others do is not correct, too. The two big militias destroy state buildings and kill people and this is also against the human rights.
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