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Nelson Mandela - 3.Version - Referat



Nelson Mandela was a man who fight against the apartheid, he lived from 1918 to 2013.
He had a hard life as a child because he grew up in the apartheid in south Africa.
He was born on the 18 July 1918 in Mvezo, Transkei in South Africa.
When he was born his name was Rolihlahla Mandela, he got his British name Mandela in his first day in school. His first school day was in 1925 on a school for Methodists, which he left with a good testimony, 2 years later, his father died.
When he was 21 years old he joined a university. He left the university after the man who nurtured him had planned a wedding for his son and for Nelson with two girls from their clan. But they couldn’t stop the wedding because their bride price was already organized. Both man flee away to Johannesburg, where they arrived in April 1941. At the start, he worked as a controller in a mine, but after a short time he was dismissed and he started to work in a lawyer’s office, where he found his first white friend, Nat Bregman.
Mandela completed his study 1943 on the University of South Africa with a Bachelor of Arts.
After that he started studying law at the University of the Witwatersrand.
But 1949 he had to quit the university without a graduation because he didn’t successfully finish his exams because of his politics carrier.
50 years later after his time in prison he successfully finished the study with a Bachelor of Law. Already as a young Law student he was in the political opposition against the white minority to give the black majority the same rights as the white people.
1944 he joined the ANC (African National Congress) and he founded the ANC Youth League to fight against the apartheid. But they didn’t win, they got overruled by the executive.
After they lost against the white Africans the apartheid started in 1948.
He tried to create a plan to resistance the apartheid. He was banned for that for 6 months. That means that he isn’t allowed to leave Johannesburg and he couldn’t join political meetings. After a few months in September 1953 his ban was renewed for 2 years.
They forced him to leave the ANC. Anyways he involved to the Congress of the People in 1955, in which they founded the anti-apartheid.
Mandela was arrested in December 1955 and 1956 he got banned for another 5 years.
He got accused with 155 others for treason. This process was stretched until 1961 where all the 156-accused person was acquitted.
After that he didn’t go back to his family, he lived in the underground.
In December 1961 became Mandela the leader of the armed group of the ANC.
They wanted to make acts of sabotage but they tried to kill nobody.
At the begin of 1962 Mandela left illegal south Africa. He went to a few African cities and to Britain. While this time he spoke with many leaders for the African Freedom Movement.
He tried to get help for the ANC and military support. In July 1962, the Justice Department released a list of people which speeches aren’t anymore allowed to print or to spread.
While Mandela and Cecil Williams made a car trip on the 5 August 1962 they got arrested.
2 months later he got a ban for all kinds of meetings.
Meanwhile that, a group with the name “Free Mandela Committee” planned a demonstration at the beginning of the process.
The justice minister made a ban order for all meetings in south Africa which was made in the 2 days before the process which should have been for Mandela’s help.
The reason
why he got arrested for 5 years on the 7 November 1962 was for 3 years because he called to public riots and 2 years for travel abroad without a passport.
In this trial he defend himself because his defender wasn’t allowed to help him.
Until the 7 October 1963 to the 20 April 1964 he was with 10 co-accused in court.
At the last day of the process before the judgement announcement, Mandela said in his 4 hours long speech that it’s very important to get weapons for a war against the government.
Because they didn’t changed the laws and ignored the nonviolent resistance for the same rights. This was published in the Rand Daily Mail and later under the title “I am Prepared to Die” over the whole world.
This title relates to the accusation to death that the prosecutor wanted.
It was Mandela’s last public speech until 1990.
But on the 12 June 1964 Mandela was arrested with 7 others for lifetime.
While this time he was in several prisons and he did courses out of the prison for the Bachelor of Law. Mandela refused a few times to get out of the prison with the condition that the ANC didn’t try to fight against the government.
After that many campaigns was started to release Mandela, for example the “Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute Concert” 1988 in London. At the same year, he got the
“United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights”.
But not all Americans liked him, Mandela and a few others was called terrorists from the USA government and they were written on the “Watch List”.
After 27 years in prison he was released on the 11 February 1990.
At the same day Mandela held a speech with 120.000 listeners.
In that speech he invited everyone who wanted to cancel the apartheid to a democratic south Africa election.
In 1991 he became the president of the ANC and in the February 1993 he made free elections for everyone.
Mandela and de Klerk got 1993 for this work the Nobel Peace Prize.
At the 27 April 1994 won the ANC the first democratic elections of south Africa and Nelson Mandela became the first black president of the country.
But he never planned another curatorship, at the 29 March 1999 he held his last speech as a politician and after that he quit the politic.
Mandela married 3 times and had 6 children.
After he was ill life-threatening he died at the 5. December 2013 because of the causes of a pneumonia.





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