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Native Peoples of Alaska - Referat

Native Peoples of Alaska

The first people came to Alaska before 30.000 years. There are the Inuit, Aleuts and the Indians. The Inuit live in the west area of Alaska. The Aleuts live on the Aleutian Island. The Indians live in the south and central Alaska.

Inuit is the plural from inuik (man) and that means people. The Inuit have two dialects: Yupik (at the Bering coast) and Inupiat (at the arktic coast). Between this language
groups is a talk impossible. The Inuit
came from Sibirien to Alaska. They
settled at the coast because the sea
was their food supplier. The Inuit donít
live in Iglus but in houses which are
made of wood, whale bone and reindeer
skins. The famous Iglus are just temporary homes. The community was very strong with the Inuit. They shared nearly all (the women too). The job from the Inuitmen was the hunting. The men hunted Karibus. They needed the coats for clothes and boats, the horn they needed for tools and weapons. The seal hunting was very important. The Inuitmen were hunting whales, too. They needed the animals for food and for houses. Former hunters helped the blanket to see seals or bears from far away. Today it is just a sport for fun on celebrations. The womenís job was to manage the household. They decorate her clothes with complicated pattern.
The Europe lifestyle, which came to Alaska with the Europeans, have the life from the Inuit very changed. The americans swap alcohol with the very important Kajaks. Through alcohol and rifles sank the population of the Inuit. Because they killed themselves in alcoholic condition.

The Aleuts live from the fishing. For the whaling they drove with Kajaks on the sea. The Aleuts hunted with harpoons, spears and lattices. They ate the fishes rawish . The skin from the animals they needed for clothes or for roofs. The Aleuts were 3 leagues, the people and slaves, the upper class and the aristocracy (they were successful whale hunter). Because there was no wood the Aleuts lived in caves. This caves were very very big. Today, there are only
few pure-Aleuts. But despite this fact the Aleuts have restored their own identity.

Coast-Indians: The coast-Indians went to the coast after the last ice-time. In the coast areas the Indians are fishing.
Tsinshiam-Indians: The only Indians reserve is in Metlakatla near to Ketchikan. Ca. 1000 Tsinshiam Indians live in this reserve. They came from Canada.
Haida-Indians: The Haida-Indians came from Canada, too. Today live the 800 Indians on the south-side of the Prince of Wales Island.
Athabascan-Indians: The Athabascan-indians were hunter and moved in the interior. They lived in small groups and ate most fishes. In the winter they searched fast stock ground. The walk at the winter was very hard. Because of that they invented the Athabascan-Indians snow-shoes. Her transportation was the dog sledge. In the walk of the time they developed 11 different languages.
Tlingit-Indians: The Tlingit are the traditional denizen at the south-east Alaska. They were very good navigators. And they lived in very big community-houses. A few from this houses built a village. And a few villages built a clan. The Tlingit-Indians think that every thing and every being have a spirit .

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