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Native Americans - 2.Version - Referat

+++ Anmerkung +++
Das hier ist mein Ablesezettel gewesen, wenn ihr es also ganz ausführlich wollt, müsstet ihr noch ein paar Infos zu den jeweiligen Abschnitten selbst suchen

1. Origin

2. Cultures
 over 500,000 different tribes
 belong to a culture
 own traditions e.g. totem poles (Totempfähle), mounds (Erdhügel), stakes (Marterpfähle) and smoking the pipe (die (Friedens-)pfeife rauchen)

totem poles: - made of wood => different figures e.g. eagles or owles, people with masks
- stood in the centre of a tribe
- represented the ghosts
- people came there to pray or ask for sth. or at special celebrattions

mounds: - small hills
- were formed like important figures
- e.g. turtles, fish, eagles

stakes: - simple post with the face of an eagle on the top
- enemies were bound (wurden gefesselt) at it
- were punished and tortured (foltern)
- the aim (Ziel) was to make the person weak-willed (willenlos)

smoking the
pipe: - tradition between two chiefs
- sat at the fire and smoked a well decoratet pipe
- a sign of peace

Famous cultures: Hopewell, Mississippi, Azteken, Tolteken and Maya

3. Festivals And Rituals

4. Communication
 communication was not easy
 over 100 Indian languages
 each is different (comparable with German and Chinese)
 invented sign language -> give 3 examples!
 almost similar to the gesture language
 wasn’t easy to understand each other at once
 exact enough to handle things => e.g. agreements (Verträge)
 smoke signals
 made fire on hills or big rocks
 put wet grass on the fire => get much smoke
 held a blanket (Decke) over the flames => different speed – diff. Clouds
 could make big, small, thin and thick clouds
 and light and dark smoke with different fuels (Brennmaterialien)

5. Life Today And In The Past

6. Appearance

7. The Indian Tribe
 tribe = Stamm
 could consist of many, but also of only a few people
 community
 own laws own chief
 same traditions as culture
 like a village
 not the same dwellings (Wohnstätten) => tipis, wigwams, real houses

Famous tribes: Apachen, Blackfoot, Cherokee, Inuit, Irokesen, Navaho, Sioux, Wallawalla

7.I | The People In A Tribe

• women: - not Squaws => bad word => means „whore“ (Hure)
- were gatherers, planters, cooks, dressmakers, weavers, peasants + of
course mothers and wives
- were subordinated to the men

• men: - easier life
- hunting, fighting, teaching their sons
- rich = man had many horses / much
- big advantages => many women at the same time, become chief

• kids: - 1st important event: naming (Namensgebung)
- were named after events that happend on the day of birth or in the past
or special tees (Merkmale) the kids had
- in puberty – boys and girls were not longer allowed to play together
- boys = learned fighting and hunting
- girls = learned how to make the household

• chief: - most important person
- made all political decisions
- met with other chiefs => smoking the pipe
- men who did important things + were popular with the people could
become chief

• medicine
man: - Indians didn’t have a doctor
- cared about ill people
- men who had a special association (Verbindung) to ghosts became medicine

8. Pemmican

9. Indian Saying
 from the Cree Indians
 1851
 „After the last Tree has been cut down, after the last river has been poisoned and after the last fish has been caught – then you’ll find out that money cannot be eaten!”

10. Indian Facts

Theory of Christoph Columbus: - wrong
- country wasn’t called „India“
- was called „Ganges Hindustan“
- C. said Indians were ‚people in God’
-> „una gentre en dio“ in Spanisch
- became „Indio“ -> „Indian“ -> Indianer

Scalping of People: - was not an Indian tradition
- European governor paid much money for every Indian
scalp (Kopfhaut) -> so it started
- did it because they could live almost a whole year
from the money
- just stuff for movies

Dreamcatchers: - dreams were very important
- were like visions
- to keep the dreams they made dreamcatchers.
- made of wood, feathers and pearls
- today = different function
-> shall chase nightmares (Alpträume) away

Navel Bags: - little bags of beautiful cloth
- formed like turtles and lizards (Eidechse)
- decorated with pearls
- put the umbilical cord (Nabelschnur) of their kids
in it
- should bring luck

Dieses Referat wurde eingesandt vom User: Maoam

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