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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk - 2.Version - Referat

Mustafa Kemal Atatuerk (* 1881 in Thessaloniki; died 10. November 1938 in Istanbul) was the founder of modern Turkey and first president of the Republic of Turkey come out after the First World War from the Osmani realm. Its earnings/services as an officer with the defense of the peninsula Gallipoli 1915 against allied troops, which should bring the Dardanellen under control, as well as 1921 in the defense fight against the Greeks penetrating into Anatolien the Kuender and general agent of Turkish self statement will made it. As a power politician of own kind, which the modernization of its country advanced persistently after western model, it created a state type unique in this form with the abolishment of sultanate and Kalifat as well as with social reforms handing far. Whereupon - despite some shade sides of its working - the personcult-like admiration, to it in Turkey until today is brought and the unquestionedness it 1934 by the Turkish parliament lent of the surname "Atatuerk" (father of the Turks) is based.

Father of the Turks (since 1934) at the end of the thorough reform process stood a change of the right of the use of a name, which should lead to a more effective administration of the person condition nature and again to western samples tied: A surname was assigned to each citizen of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal received the name Atatuerk (father of the Turks) from the national assembly as surname. For some trusted friends and way companions he selected the future honouring surnames, so also for Ismet pasha, because of its earnings/services in the war of liberation against the Greeks after the place of its two large battle successes?noenue received the surname to which. ?smet?noenue as an Prime Minister over many years Mustafa Kemal Atatuerk of the everyday government routine relieved and became after its death its successor as president.
Atatuerks name choice and the honour testifying, which the state founder of the Turkish republic on itself united (1926 established in Konya a first monument, which uncounted further in the whole country followed, see below), corresponded to the time-typical forms of the person cult in authoritarian Regimen, however at the same time one to integrating effect for the Turkish commonwealth, away-working today, unfolded. Atatuerk filled president with its person as a freedom fighter, and highest teachers of the nation the vacuum, which accompanied with the abolishment the break from conventional customs, forced by sultanate and Kalifat as well as with, to the purpose of the modernization. It regarded it certainly also as its task to return to its after the war defeat within completely new national framework people who can be organized necessary the self-confident its and a pride without which it could have formed probably hardly an approximately stable new state federation. It went thereby very far, not only, by it the roots of the Tuerkentums in Central Asia up to Attila and Dschingis Khan led back in glorifizierender intention, but above all, by letting spread the lehrmeinung, the Turks being the oldest people of the world, from whom the other peoples descended directly or indirectly.

Working with regard to foreign policy Atatuerks nationalism was arranged inward, referred to Turkey and its population and contained outward no aggressive component. National minorities such as Kurds and Armenians, as far as they settled still in the country, were suppressed however in their linguistic and cultural independent existence and fought in the case of resistance with military means. Atatuerk rejected a pantuerkisch motivated imperialistic expansion contrary to its former rival Enver pasha consistently: "today are all nations of the earth nearly used become or strive to still become it. Consequently humans must think not only of the existence and the luck of that nation, to which he belongs, but also of the presence and well-being of all nations of the world... We do not know whether an event, which we believe far far away does not reach us a daily. For this reason one must regard entire mankind as a body and a nation as its member." - quotes after Rill, S. 118 1932 joined Turkey the voelkerbund, 1936 it the sovereignty still withheld in the contract of Lausanne over the straits of Bosphorus and Dardanellen and relevant control of the navigation by the agreement of Montreux were entitled. To Greece it could be manufactured of 1930 to a neighborly relationship and with the Balkans pact 1934 in Athens it above all Atatuerks multilateral balance efforts was to be attributed that Turkey, Greece, Yugoslavia and Romania uniting treaty system could be closed. In the same year the Greek prime minister Venizelos - although unsuccessful - suggested Mustafa Kemal Atatuerk for the Nobel peace prize. To the fascist dictators Mussolini and Hitler held Atatuerk unmistakably distance and was called a multiplicity at the beginning of the LV rule in the exile of fleeing scientists, artists and architects in the Turkey welcomely, which could use their co-operation with the modernization of the country and with the structure of the Turkish university nature well. For some of them the universities from Ankara and Istanbul became to new effect places. Under those, which found a refuge in Turkey, e.g. the later citizen of Berlin was governing mayors Ernst Reuter and the architect Bruno thaws, which should sketch 1938 the Katafalk to the funeral service for the deceased Atatuerk. Ambivalent was the relationship Atatuerks to the neighbouring great power USSR. Both states could support each other after the First World War in the effort to overcome the international isolation by winner powers. Also from Soviet side the recent Turkish state granted the development aids to limited extent Atatuerk received gladly. From the communist ideology and the Soviet society model however he dissociated himself clearly. Already in October 1933, with the ceremony for the 10-year old anniversary of the Republic of Turkey, Atatuerk foresaw a possible new war in Europe and put to be country for this case on a course of the neutrality firmly (Guelbeyaz, S. 211). It gave the following prophecy on the way, which however only 1951 was published to the American general Douglas MacArthur, which visited Turkey for maneuver observation at the beginning of the 1930er years,: "according to my opinion the fate of Europe like yesterday also tomorrow on the attitude of Germany will be dependent. This unusually dynamic and disciplined nation from 70 million becomes, as soon as they seek to eliminate itself a political current given, which up-whips its national longings, sooner or later the contract from Versailles to. Germany will be able to set up in shortest time an army, which will be capable, completely to Europe, with exception of England and Russia, to occupy... the war in the years 1940/45 will break out... France has no more possibility of setting up a strong army. England cannot rely with the defense of its island no more on France. America will not be able to remain neutral in this war exactly as in the First World War. And Germany will lose this war because of the American war entrance... "

Not only in Turkey, where still today each disparaging expression over the state founder under punishment stands, and Mustafa Kemal Atatuerk for its life achievement respect is gezollt and an honouring memory is retained. The span of its Bewunderer hands among other things from the British prime minister Lloyd George, to the opponent in the First World War, already quoted, over the leader of the Nazi regime Adolf Hitler, that it with racistic reason - his blue eyes because of - gladly at its side would have seen (see Rill, S.147), up to the American presidents Franklin D Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy, it to 25. Day of death 1963 with the words appreciated:
"the name" Atatuerk "reminds me of the historical victories one of the largest men of this century to govern to its creative ability of its distance vision, of its large courage and of its being able as a soldier." - quotes after Guelbeyaz, S. 228

The army, from whose rows Mustafa Kemal had ascended and which it had obligated since the wars of liberation on itself, remained also in the cases of change of the political development after death Atatuerks - and during whole 20. Century - the authoritarian guaranteeing power of the Kemalismus, in particular in relation to Islamic tendencies. This privileged position of the army in the Republic of Turkey, existing still, belongs to the political inheritance left by Atatuerk, even if meanwhile long a plurales party system existed and changes of government after elections frequently took place. A model, which spurred to the imitation, Atatuerk became particularly in states of the third world in such a way specified, - like 1944 of India after times Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru - in it the vorkaempfer of the independence from colonial powers admired (see Rill, S.146). Still 1981 - in the year of its murder by radical Muslims - admitted the Egyptian president Anwar as-Sadat: "it was the source of the light for each country, which revolted itself against the imperialism and fought for the liberty. Finally also we, the young officers of the Egyptian revolution, made our revolution by reading and understanding Atatuerk exactly. It became us the signpost/guide." - quotes after Guelbeyaz, S. 228 When Mustafa Kemal Atatuerk died 1938 at the consequences of living ore erring trousers, he left a country, to become which was coined/shaped on the one hand by its authoritarian style of leadership and by its every now and then demonstrative hardness with the elimination of political opponents, which had far opened on the other hand however western way of life and aufklaererischem political thinking and got ready to, to a bridge state between Islamic and Christian abendlaendischer civilization. Because today about the European Union entry of Turkey can be negotiated, Atatuerks life's work was the indispensable condition.

Memorial place
The memory of Mustafa Kemal Atatuerk is very strongly pronounced in Turkey. In the Dolmabahçe palace in Istanbul Mustafa Kemal died on 10 November 1938. The clocks in the whole palace stand according to old custom on its hour of death. Its body was brought to created mausoleum "An?tkabir" after Ankara and bedded 1953 in that particularly for it to the last peace. Still today young brautpaare prove their reverence there to it. To the day of death Mustafa Kemals is inserted in Turkey one mourning minute, to which country-wide sirens ring out. Its image is on all coins and cash notes of the Turkish currency. In many Turkish cities several Atatuerk statues are located on public places and parks. Besides Buesten of Atatuerk and some mechanisms are carry its names in nearly all public buildings: the Atatuerk dam, the international airport Istanbuls (Atatuerk Havaliman?) and the Istanbuler Atatuerk Olimpiyat Stad?. Important memorial places and monuments: The birth house Atatuerks in Thessaloniki is today a museum. In Turkey two original-faithful reproductions of the house were established as monuments: in Istanbul (local part Avc?lar/Ambarl?) as well as in Ankara in a park. The first monument Atatuerks of the Austrian sculptor Heinrich Krippel on the Saray point in Istanbul developed 1925. The Bueste was reproduced countless marks and is everywhere in the country. The Taksim place in Istanbul, as new center of the modern city, conceived around the republic monument of the Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica from the year 1928. In the Guevenpark in Ankara the "monument of the confidence" stands. It was established 1935 after the drafts of the Austrian to sculptors Clemens wood masters, Anton Hanak and Josef Thorak and carries as inscription a quotation of Atatuerk: "Turk, praises you, works and trusts. (Tuerk, oe?uen, cal??, gueven.). The "victory monument" Atatuerks of the Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica of 1927 at the victory place in Ankara shows it in uniform. The "republic monument" (1927) of the Austrian sculptor Heinrich Krippel at the Ulus place in Ankara shows Atatuerk on a horse and is the Turkish liberty fight to symbolize.

Society reformer and educating dictator (1924-1938) the break with the centuries-old structures and institutions of the Osmani realm a venture remained, resistance caused. Some the important fellow combatants from the beginnings of the war of liberation, under it Kaz?m Karabekir and Ali Fuad, Mustafa Kemals separated in November 1924 the oppositional a "progress party" from the people's party of the president and based with permission. This made itself among other things the respect from freedom of conscience and religious feelings to the program and won support under the trailers of the Scharia. The serious challenge of the recent republic and its president this development, when in February 1925 in Suedostanatolien a Kurd rebellion broke out, became its mental leader, sheikh Said, who publicised return to sultanate and Kalifat. With all hardness and brutality this collection was militarily struck down and the goal was pursued, which Kurdish opposition far-test-possible to extinguish (see: Sheikh Said rebellion). In June a prohibition of the progress party was issued; Emergency acts, press censorship and law apparatus were positioned against Opponenten. One 1926 in Izmir uncovered Mordkomplott of three conspirators against the president were used of Mustafa Kemal as opportunity to account for with the heads of the opposition as alleged wire-pullers of the planned notice in the context of a processprocess process before the "liberty court". The republic accepted courses of a dictatorship. Its gebieterische and restlessly forward of urgent nature was committed to the example of a modern republican commonwealth after western orientation sample. Already in a diary recording from 6 June 1918 he had formulated the basic motive of all later reform steps: Mustafa Kemal Atatuerk"Sollte I a daily large influence or power possess, regard I it as the best to change our society suddenly - immediately and in shortest time -. Because contrary to others I do not believe that this change can be reached, as the Ungebildeten is led only gradually on a higher level. My internal straeubt itself against such a view. For what reason I should on the lower conditions of the general population back-go, after I was long trained many years, civilization and social history studied and in all phases of my life satisfaction by liberty experienced? I will ensure that they also come there. Not I may do me them, but they must approximate me." - quotes after Grohnau, S. 125f.

On 15 May 1919, directly before Mustafa Kemals embarkation after Samsun, the Greek invasion in Smyrna, today Izmir, supported by the British government, had begun freedom fighters and republic founders (1919-1924), which changed then into eastern an expansion movement of Greek troops and could not of the government in Konstantinopel not be prevented. To this situation the general inspector referred, when he made himself immediately to organize the resistance against crew powers and no to the telegrams from Konstantinopel, which arranged its recall, more responded. To its dismissal it reacted with the placing of the uniform and with the summoning of congresses in Erzurum and Sivas and the establishment of the national assembly 1920 in Ankara, which made it its chairman and against the Sultan and the allied ones arranged Gegenregierung installed one. Since the turn of the year 1919/20 this took its seat in Ankara, which was developed now gradually to the new Turkish capital. The large national assembly in Ankara leaned and explained the peace treaty of Sèvres, accepted by the government in Konstantinopel in May 1919, which fixed large control of the allied ones (the British, Frenchmen, Greeks and Italians) over a osmanischen remainder state, indignant off the signers as traitors.

The Greeks were however not finally still struck. Only after a further year of the force collecting it succeeded to Mustafa Kemal with a surprise attack with Dumlup?nar on 26 August 1922 to complete its triumph and to strike the Greek troops destroying into the escape. The contract of Sèvres was
at the same time void thereby and after negotiations with the government in Ankara, recognized now by the allied ones, 1923 by the contract by Lausanne was replaced, which manufactured the sovereignty of Turkey within the borders existing today up to the straits. In the consequence had one and a half million Greeks Kleinasien to leave and one half million Turks from Greece into Turkey to resettle. With its flexible attitude opposite the allied ones, directed toward the own keeping in power, Sultan Mehmet VI had. Vahideddin and its position lastingly discredits itself. Of Mustafa the Kemal in November 1922 energetically operated abolishment of the sultanate therefore first hardly encountered resistance. And on 29 October 1923 by a large constitutional amendment the Republic of Turkey was created, led of a president as government point and an exclusive owner of the executive, an office, which to requirement and position was cut by Mustafa Kemal. Not only in their beginnings, but until today the republic is Turkey with its person and its name engstens links. Its political guidelines, the principles of the Kemalismus, are officially further high-held. There is this: Republic anise mash in the sense of people sovereignty, nationalism as idiom against the many people state of the osmanischen cut, Populismus as a sign on the interests of the people, not a class arranged policy, revolutionism in the sense of a constant continuation of reforms, Laizismus, i.e. separation from state and religion, and budgetism with partial national economic control. For the security of the new state order and for the penetration of the example of a laizisic republic had to be broken however not only with the sultanate of the Osmanen, but also with the Kalifat. As Kalifen the osmanic rulers were "the shade of God on ground connection" and concomitantly the religious heads of all Muslims. In order not to cause during the establishment of republic the clenched opposition of the strictly faith, Mustafa Kemal had, when he the Sultan in the exile forced, which the Kalifen first its cousin transfer to let. 1924 seemed to it then the time come to eliminate also this tie point of trailers of the old order. On 3 March the national assembly decided the abolishment of the Kalifenamts, on the day after had all members of the family Osman Turkey to leave. In the consequence the the wiping monasteries and the religious Courts of Justice were closed, dissolved religion schools for clergyman and judge; the general compulsory schooling was introduced and all schools to a ministry of education was subordinated.

Origin and youth was born Mustafa as a son of the Turkish married people Ali R?za Efendi and Zuebeyde Han?m in Saloniki, which was a part of the Osmani realm at that time, at the same time the home place of different peoples, in world openness prevailed and the Muslims with Jews and Christians predominantly peacefully lived together. Mustafas grandfather on the paternal side, Hafiz Ahmed, ranked among the Yörük Türkmen. Its nut/mother was daughter of an old-established rural (original from Konya and Karaman coming) family of the small town Langaza (today Langadas) with Saloniki. Parents married 1871. The birth house Atatürk is today a museum. Ali Riza, to which as a customs officer on a remote post at the Macedonian border of its wife and family had not been able to offer other conditions, had the position after the death of two sons given up and his luck as a wood dealer in Saloniki tries. From five brothers and sisters Mustafas outlived only the sister Makbule Atadan the childhood. Its own details date of birth are not certain, so that he selected for it 19 May later, at which it 1919 with 38 years in the anatolischen coastal town Samsun landed, in order to collect the forces for the release of the country from winner powers and sultanate to. Mustafas childhood was certain of several pagings, in those every now and then already its pronounced self-will (Rill, S. 19) and its penetration ability became effective. Only few days visited it the religious school, particularly because of the photograph ceremony, wanted by the nut/mother, then it changed with support of the father on a privatschule to western model. When it was seven years old, its father died. The nut/mother, that could hardly nourish their two remaining children, pulled to her brother on the country, where no regulated school attendance was possible. After mehrmonatiger school break Mustafa was given to its aunt in Saloniki to the Obhut, so that he could participate again in instruction. Bad ones flog, with bloody Striemen on the back, which it referred from a teacher, let it connected the repeated Schulabbrecher become. As a twelve-year-old boy it applied then secretly at the military middle school in Saloniki, existed themselves the entrance examination and implemented its will afterwards against the resistance of the nut/mother. The surname Kemal (Arab: "perfectly") to it after own stating its there mathematics teacher is to have lent, he with his abilities impressed. 1895 it completed the final examination as the fourth-best. It continued its training faraway the family at the higher military school in the westMacedonian Manastir (today Bitola). There was military training and political beginnings (1896-1905) at this as at other military training centres of the Osmani realm at that time strong, west oriented reform movement. In the process 19. Century opening tendencies had been promoted in relation to the west also by osmanischen rulers, up to by Sultan the Abduelhamid II. 1876 imported condition together with parliament, which he recalled however two years later. This was the starting point of the young-recent opposition movement particularly at the military schools, to which Mustafa Kemal found now in Manastir connection. After again outstanding existed final examination Mustafa Kemal arrived 1899 as a cadet at the military academy in Istanbul. Here it became remarkable because of oppositionals of political activities, profited however from the Protektion of the liberal of director of academy. Soon after the end of its officer training it came into the catches of the secret service, had several months in the prison to spend and came only by the recent Fuersprache of the director of the military academy again on free foot. The secret service document of its misdemeanours registered not only political insubordination, but among other things also as dishonorably valid handling prostitutes and an alcohol illness (Gronau, S. 54). The excessive consumption of Rak?, a high-per cent liquor, to which under sleep disturbances the suffering of time life awarded, should become indeed late a life-shortening health problem. Knowledge thirst and efficiency Mustafa Kemals were however - up to its last years - apparent relatively unimpaired of it. The military academy it had terminated 1905 as the class fifth and therefore a shining career as a staff officer to suggest. Now however it was abkommandiert faraway the political focuses on an outguard in Damascus. Military career (1906-1919) to it as a reorganizer of the Turkish society after the defeats of the Osmani realm in the First World War effectively will could, Mustafa Kemal a whole number of futile approaches took to arrive into a national leading position. Into Damascus Mustafa Kemal came into contact with a trailer of the oppositionals young Turk, who had been involved in a failed assassination attempt on Sultan Abduelhamid II.. After completion of a term of imprisonment one had sent it to Syria into banishing, where he operated now a book shop, in which it and others with forbidden French writings acted. With it Mustafa Kemal created the revolutionary secret organization "native country and liberty", for which he enlisted further members in Jerusalem, Jaffa and Beirut. At the end of of 1906 gave it its military superior cover for a covered journey back after Saloniki, where he created a branch of his secret company, but looked for in vain entrance to the prominent heads of the young-recent opposition. Here as a deserter to be discovered it met the danger by punctual return journey to Syria. After its transport to the captain it was shifted in September 1907 to Macedonia. But also the provided it no entrance into the guidance circle of the young-Turkish "committee for unit and progress". Like that it was around one year a younger young-Turkish officer Enver, which forced the Sultan with a military revolt to put the condition of 1876 again into effect and then for long time in the offside kept political to the Mustafa Kemal. Mustafa Kemal opportunity nevertheless received to show his military guidance abilities and organization when he became to appoint 1909 as chief instructor of those divisions, by whose employment Abduelhamid II. to the transfer of the Sultanswuerde to its brother Mehmed V. was forced, after Abduelhamid had proceeded against the newly selected parliament. 1910 it participated as an observer in the French autumn maneuvers with Grandvilliers in the Picardie and came so for the first time to Western Europe. Of Italy imperialistic expenditure tire to North Africa 1911 Enver pashas to the delegation, which should lead into of Tripoli the osmanischen troops against the Italians into the fight, led. Mustafa Kemal announced itself voluntarily for this employment and was also assigned. Both rivalry accepted here already clear courses. In October 1912 the Osmani realm gave the North African provinces lost, since the situation on the Balkans required a military force concentration. Bulgaren and Greeks besieged Edirne and got ready to to eliminate also the remainders of the osmanischen rule on the European continent. When in the controversy over the war booty then however 1913 Bulgaren and Greek turned out together, young-recent military under Envers the guidance for back conquest Edirnes used the opportunity. Thus Enver had sat down again outstanding in scene and for a steep political career had recommended: He became immediately a war Minister. Mustafa Kemal was assigned by the general staff the guidance of those armed forces, which had to defend the Dardanellen and the peninsula Gallipoli, a for the time being little fastidious task. In the autumn 1913 it was shifted as Militaerattaché to the osmanische message in Sofia, a recent political cold position, which it divided with its political way companion Ali Fethi, which was replaced as a Secretary-General of the young-Turkish "committee for unit and progress" and carried on the Ambassador posts in Sofia. Political conflicting aims opposite Enver existed for Mustafa Kemal particularly in two different regard: While Enver wanted to keep the military connections to the German empire as close as possible and to make in the kriegsfall with the Germans common cause, Mustafa Kemal rejected this and aimed at the independent reorganization of the Turkish army. And during Enver for the future a pantuerkisches realm under inclusion of the Turkvoelker Central Asia anvisierte, was from the beginning in for instance oriented at the today's expansion of the Turkish national territory Mustafa Kemals nationalnational conceptions. It used the period before outbreak of the First World War, in order to make itself familiar in Sofia with diplomatic customs and umgangsformen, what it later than president much zustatten come should. Only after repeated futile inquiries at the beginning of the First World War it in January 1915 the command became over on the peninsula the Gallipoli stationed 19. Division of the 5. Army transfer. On this post it achieved a legendary military gloss act, which caused the resignation of the British war Minister Winston Churchill failing with this enterprise in the defense fight against the allied ones, which wanted to achieve the rule over the Dardanellen. Prime minister Lloyd George, which had supported Churchill's plan, saw itself compelled to the explanation: "as I should know that a soldier faced our armies, like it history all centuries only once bring out?" By its highest military superior Enver pasha was further ignored Mustafa Kemal in addition, so that he already prepared a letter of resignation. Only by switching of the German commander in chief of the 5. Army, general Liman of sanders, which turned reminding to Enver, remained to Mustafa Kemal in the service. In January 1916 one shifted Mustafa Kemal after Edirne. At the end of February 1916 became it with his units for the reinforcement of the 3. Army to the anatolische east front shifts. For its earnings/services with the defense Gallipolis it kept later the transport connected to the general, with the honour title pasha. The Russian revolution 1917 led to the calming of the military situation in the east, which inspired Enver to new offensive raids against the Englishmen in Mesopotamien and Egypt, while Mustafa Kemal considered the concentration the defense the anatolischen heartland necessary and to Envers plans openly opposed. Thereupon it - vorgeblich because of illness - was given time off by the service. As a winner of Gallipoli it became the turn of the year 1917/18 for an attendance of the crown Prince Vahideddin with emperor Wilhelm II. in German military headquarters in Spa as Militaerattaché and a personal aide determines. It gave to recognize the independence of its judgement also on this occasion relentlessly. After the attendance of the west front to its estimate asked, he expressed opposite general field marshal Paul von Hindenburg: "the war is already lost." However it did not succeed to it despite several raids to win crown Prince Vahideddin for its conceptions and power ambitions in the guidance of the Osmani realm. This showed up finally, when Vahideddin actually began the succession to the throne in June 1918 and the commander of army for the defense of Syria against the British made Mustafa Kemal, a venture offering no prospects from view of the high gate, which come down then also only to an arranged retreat. Before the return to Turkey on 27 July 1918 Mustafa Kemal had stayed for the therapy of a kidney basin inflammation in addition for some weeks as a kurgast in Boehmen, where he met he its old promoter Cemal pasha. To at the beginning of October 1918 Enver and its government-trusted gave up and fled abroad. Also their successors refused however Mustafa Kemal pasha the war Ministry aimed at by him. In view of the allied crew politics beginning after the armistice on 30 October he recommended demobilisierten troops to be formed to Guerillaverbaenden inside Anatoliens and stand by for a future liberation struggle. Meanwhile Mustafa Kemal ran after a recent dissolution of parliament by Sultan Mehmet VI. Vahideddin danger as potential oppositionals to be made innocuous. Its situation clarified itself in unexpected way, as it - in May 1919 appointed the general inspector - for the fight of Greek militias in the hinterland against Samsun and to the Demobilisierung of the IX. Army was sent to Ostanatolien, where with Kaz?m Karabekir and Ali Fuad of two army leaders with its troops were available, which subordinated themselves to its guidance.
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