Lerntippsammlung Headergrafik


Motherboard - Referat

. ZIF Socket is the descriptive term for the way certain Intel Pentium microprocessors plug into a computer motherboard so that it makes contact with the motherboard's built-in wires or data bus. Socket is the best-known of eight connection variations that use the ZIF (Zero Insertion Force) socket.

2. Memory Module Sockets A DIMM (dual in-line memory module) is a double SIMM (single in-line memory module). Like a SIMM, it's a module containing one or several random access memory) chips on a small circuit board with pins that connect it to the computer motherboard. A SIMM typically has a 32 data bit (36 bits counting parity bits) path to the computer that requires a 72-pin connector. For synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM) chips, which have a 64 data bit connection to the computer, SIMMs must be installed in pairs (since each supports a 32 bit path). A single DIMM can be used instead. A DIMM has a 168-pin connector and supports 64-bit data transfer.

3. Accelerated Graphics Port An interface specification that enables 3-D graphics to display quickly on ordinary personal computers. AGP is designed to convey 3-D images (for example, from Web sites or CD-ROMs) much more quickly and smoothly than is possible today on any computer other than an expensive graphics workstation. It is especially useful in conjuction with gaming, three-dimensional (3D) video, and sophisticated scientific/engineering graphics programs.
The interface uses your computer's random access memory (RAM) to refresh the monitor image and to support the texture mapping, z-buffering, and alpha blending required for 3-D image display. AGP offers high-speed data transfer to and from RAM, optimizing the use of memory and minimizing the amount of memory necessary for high-performance graphics. The AGP main memory use is dynamic, meaning that when not being used for accelerated graphics, main memory is restored for use by the operating system or by other applications.
AGP runs at several times the bus speed of conventional Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI). Because of this, the data transfer rate using AGP is significantly greater than with PCI video cards. AGP employs eight sideband address lines, so multiple data transfers can take place concurrently. Intel, which took the lead in developing its specifications, introduced AGP into a chipset for its Pentium microprocessor. The newer, faster microchips in Intel's Pentium line are designed to work with the AGP chipset. Intel says the advanced floating point unit and faster cache algorithm of the more advanced Pentiums are better adapted for 3-dimensional applications.
4. PCI Slots (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
Introduced with the Pentium PC, PCI is a local bus architecture that supports either a 32 or 64-bit bus, which allows it to be used with both Pentium and legacy 486 computers. PCI expansion cards are Plug-and-Play, which means they automatically configure themselves to the appropriate IRQ, DMA, and I/O port addresses.

5. CMOS Battery: CMOS Battery: The CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor), is where the setup configuration of your PC is stored which does need a battery (typically lithium). With the advent of the BIOS setup utility, introduced with the 286 PC, a battery has been a necessity to keep the CMOS powered and holding the system setup configuration, even when the system is powered off.

When you pull out an old battery to replace it, the CMOS will be blanked. Unless you have it backed up or written down, the setup information may be lost.

6. Power Supply Connector This connector is typically and Molex connector used on most recent ATX motherboards. These connectors are keyed, so they can't be installed backward.
A good way to tell which form factor you have is by the motherboard power connector. The AT form factor has two connectors from its power supply, attached to the motherboard right next to each other. Sometimes the connector blocks are labeled P8 and P9, the plug positions of their mates on the motherboard. The ATX form
factor power connector eliminates any confusion with the single 20-wire keyed connector.
WARNING: The ATX power supply is always on. Power is supplied to the motherboard even when the system power is off. Always disconnect the power cord from the back of

the case before working on one.
Front View of Connectors
Most printers connect via the parallel ports (LPT1 - LPT3) or USB ports. LPT ports are designed and numbered according to their I/O addresses by the system BIOS during the boot sequence. The parallel connector shown here, is a 25-pin DB (data bus) female connector. This connector is usually mounted on the motherboard or on an adapter card on older systems, and is used to connect with the male DB 25-pin connector of the printer cable. The 36-pin Centronics is a common connector used at the printer end of the connecting cable.
Also shown above, are two serial port connectors (Serial 1 and Serial 2) typically located directly below the parallel port. These 9-pin DB (data bus) connectors are used for a serial mouse, serial printer, fax modem, etc. Simply connect the serial cable from the serial port connector to your serial devices.


Front View of Connectors
The USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports (shown above as USB1 and USB0) allows for the connection of up to 127 external devices. USB provides support for both low-volume serial I/O devices, such as a mouse or keyboard, and some higher volume devices, such as a modem, CD-ROM, scanner, or digital camera. All USB devices are Plug-and-Play, and you can hot-swap them; that is, remove or insert them with the system power on.


Front View of Connectors
As shown above, are the mouse PS/2 and USB connectors on this motherboard. They are typically todays mouse connector standards.
WARNING: It is recommended that you turn off the computer's power before connecting or disconnecting a keyboard or PS/2 mouse.

10. Secondary IDE Connector (IDE-1) IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) technology was originally developed as an alternative to the expensive SCSI (pronounced "scuzzy") technology by Compaq and Western Digital. Basically, this technology integrates the controller board in the disk drive - each channel can support two internal devices.
If two devices are connected to one channel, one should be set to "Master" and one to "Slave".

11. Primary IDE Connector (IDE-1) IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics:) These interfaces on the motherboard determines bus mastering, which support PIO Modes, and Ultra DMA 33/66/100/133 mode transfer. Typically these interfaces support IDE disks, ATAPI devices (ex: CD-ROM and ZIP drives).
If two devices are connected to one channel, one should be set to "Master" and one to "Slave".

12. Dip Switches and Jumpers A Jumper is a set of two or more pins that are covered with a block to indicate different values. Dip Switches and Jumpers are used to indicate the presence or absence of certain types of hardware or conditions.

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