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Malcolm X - 2.Version - Referat

Movie: Malcolm X
Books: Autobiography which is called Malcolm X, too

Malcolm X (Malcolm Little)

Birth: May 9th 1925 in Omaha/Nebraska
Mother: born on Grenada and grew up there
Father: preacher, activist in first black civil rights movement founded by Marcus

- Nebraska, Omaha (birth of Malcolm) than moved to Lansing (father was treated by the „Ku-Klux-Klan“)
- Malcolm is the fourth of eight children
- 1931 bus ran over father some thought Suizide
- Malcolm thought he was killed by a white man
- was involved in crimes (stealing, marihuana, burglary)
- in 1939 his mother was sent to a mental institution
- after this X was sent to a youth centre in 1939
- he moved to his half-sister in Boston
- he stayed long times in the ghetto and began to smoke „Sweet Marijane“
- refused to fight in WW II
- 1945: he founded a gang of burglars
- 1946 he was caught by the police and was arrested (for 6 years)
- 1949 he entered the N.o.I. he got confidence through this organization
- came free in 1952
- he denied military service a second time -> Korea war
- he changed his name in Malcolm X through the organisation
- But he got to know a woman short time later
- 1958 he married Betty Jean Sanders
- he got 4 children
- X founded the Muslim Mosque Inc because he wanted to remain Muslim
- 3 years later: X travelled to Mekka, Saudi-Arabia, Beirut, Egypt, Nigeria and Ghana
- Because of this trip he changed his name in El-Haji Malik El-Shabazz
- After the trip he founded a new organization called organization of afro-american unity (OAAU) the mainaim was the black nationalism in a new way (Blacks should have control over their living environment)
- X gave his last speech at the 18 Feb in 1965
- Before X could start two men in the audience had an argument.
- The guards went there to stop it
- At this moment X was unprotected
- A smoke-bomb detonated
- Someone shot
at X’s breast with a shotgun.
- The two men who started an argument were involved in the assassination
- One of them was caught and got almost lynched

- X’s two organizations (OAAU and the Muslim Mosque) broke down after his violent death
- X was a special man, because he was one of the few black leaders who didn’t let himself get corrupted by anyone
- In the end of his life X stepped in the history for socialism and a worldwide revolution
- X worked and fought for a more humane existence for a lot of Blacks in the USA and all over the world

X was an political opponent of M.L.King

El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, [Malcolm (or Malik)] who is from the tribe of „Shabazz“ and has made the Hajj, (pilgrimage) to Mecca
There are: malcolm x college (chicago), malcolm x parks
- Malcolms grave is in hartsdale/new york

Nation of Islam

- was founded in 1930 by Wallace D. Fard
- was a radical-religious-muslim Organsisation for black Americans
- N.o.I. Is let by „Louis Farrakhan“ who gained much confidence with his separating-discussion of the people
- about 100.000 members
- prominent members: Malcolm X (El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz), Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) und Mike Tyson (Abdul Aziz)
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