Mahatma Gandhi - 6.Version - Referat
Gandhi: A Biography
The topic of my presentation is about Mahatma Gandhi.
Now i would like to speak about his biography.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948), also known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born in Porbandar in the present day state of Gujarat in India on October 2, 1869.. He was educated in law at University College, London.. In 1891, after having been admitted to a British bar, Gandhi returned to India and attempted to establish a law practice in Bombay, without much success. Two years later an Indian firm with interests in South Africa sent him as legal adviser in its office in Durban. Arriving in Durban, Gandhi found himself treated as a member of an inferior race. He booked a first-class train ticket to Johannesburg – and was ordered out of the train because of his colour. This was the turning point of Gandhi. Many Indians in South Africa were also discriminated. This was the point where Gandhi threw himself into the struggle of elementary rights for Indians.
Resistance to Injustice
Gandhi remained in South Africa for twenty years but was also imprisoned many times.
Campaign for Independence
Later Gandhi came back to India. Gandhi became a leader in a complex struggle, the Indian campaign for home rule. Where he launched his movement of non-violent resistance to British rule in India, Indians in public office resigned and throughout India, streets were blocked by squatting Indians who refused to rise even when beaten by police. Gandhi was arrested, but the British were soon forced to release him.
Gandhi also advocated the cottage industries; he began to use a spinning wheel in which cotton was made.
Slowly Gandhi became the international symbol of a free India. He lived a spiritual and a simple life of prayer, fasting, and meditation. He wore the loincloth and shawl of the lowliest Indian and was a pure vegetarien. (photo) Indians began to call him Mahatma (great-soul).
Now it was too late to stop Gandhi because his political and spiritual hold on India was so great that the British authorities dared not interfere with him.
Now i am going to talk about one of the most important years in Gandhi's life.
In 1930 the Mahatma started a new campaign of civil disobedience, and called the Indian population to refuse to pay taxes, particularly the tax on salt. The campaign was a march to the sea, in which thousands of Indians followed Gandhi from Ahmedabad to the Arabian Sea, where they made salt by evaporating sea water.
Gandhi looks on Domestic Problems
Gandhi was also imprisoned in India. He fasted for long periods several times; these fasts were effective measures against the British . In September 1932, while in jail, Gandhi undertook a "fast unto death" to improve the status of the Hindu Untouchables.
Independence for India
By 1944 the Indian struggle for independence was in its final stages. . India and Pakistan became separate states when the British granted India its independence in 1947 Gandhi pleaded with Hindus and Muslims to live together peacefully. On January 13, 1948, he undertook another successful fast in New Delhi to bring peace, but on January 30, 12 days after the termination of that fast, as he was on his way to his evening prayer meeting, he was assassinated by a fanatic Hindu.
Gandhi's death was regarded as an international catastrophe. The condolences to India were expressed by all countries.
.Gandhi's importance was not limited to the 20th century but is seen in terms of history.
Facts about Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi inspired millions of people world over to take the path of non-violence and civill disobedience
Mahatma Gandhi experimented with diets to see how cheaply he could live and remain healthy. He started living principally on fruit and goats milk and olive oil.
Time Magazine, the famous U.S. publication, named Mahatma Gandhi the Man of the Year in 1930.
On 30 January 1948, Gandhi was shot and killed on the grounds of the Birla Bhavan (Birla House) in New Delhi.
These methods included fasting (refusing to eat any food) and boycotting (refusing to buy) British goods. The Indians saw him as a spiritual and political leader as he worked to improve the economic and social conditions of his country.
Gandhi fought for the rights of the Indian population in South Africa as well, and he led the fight to rid India of its caste system, especially defending the rights of the “untouchables,” the poorest people. India gained its independence from Britain in 1947 but split into India and Pakistan because the Hindus and Muslims were still at war. Gandhi worked hard to keep peace between the Hindus and Muslims of Asia. Soon after India’s independence, however, Gandhi was shot by someone who did not want the Hindus to tolerate the Muslims.
Born on October 2, 1869, at Porbandar, Kathiawar in western Indian state of Gujarat, to Karamchand Gandhi and Putlibai, he was married at the age of 13 to 14-year old Kasturbai Makhanji. He had four sons.
Gandhi was also a prolific writer. For decades he edited several newspapers including Harijan in Gujarati, Hindi and English; Indian Opinion while in South Africa and, Young India, in English, and Navajivan, a Gujarati monthly. He also wrote a few books including his autobiography, An Autobiography or My Experiments with Truth.
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