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Mahatma Gandhi - 10.Version - Referat

Mahatma- translated from indian speach into our, means „ clean/great soul“. But this name was just a titel. A titel of a fighter for freedom. Actually he was born as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 1869 in India. But those names aren´t the only ones. Also he is called „Bapu“-> father. Not just a father like we think but a father for the whole Nation India . So naturaly you can realize couse of those variable meanings and facts that this man was very important for a big part of the world and our society up to our generation. But why exactly ?
B.Main Part
Before I start to answer this question, I want to tell you something historical about the colloquial named Mahatma Gandhi.
He was born by the 4 wife of his Dad Karamchand on the second day of October 1869 in India which was a britain colonie at this time. His parents were some important traders. And they were strongly religios believing in hte Hinduismus. Anyway they were quite wealthy as they belong to the third level in the Indian cast system. Does anyone knows what this means? (Yes Exactly. In India everybody have a cast. They exist of 5 casts.The first one is with titeld one like kings, priests and the lowermost on is with forges,fishers etc.) So he and his family were relativly reputabled.
He went to school and made his certificate. At this time,when he was 13 years old, he married Kasturba Makthaji. With her he lived trough a lot and also became father of 4Kids. I will get back to this later
Furthermore he decided to study judiciary in England/London which sounds naturally fine for us but for hindus it was a big sin. Because for being able to go to England you have to cross the black ocean. And even on the other side ofIndia there are nothing sins, namely alcohol, meat and prostitution. At least most Hindus thought like this. Because of his decision, leaving his fatherland, he was kicked out of his cast.Though he promised in a vow not doing all those sins.
As from now on he was an outcast. Finanicial responsible for his own.
But this could not stop him. He finished his studies.
I 1891 he returned back to India but soon was called by an old friend of his family who lived in South Africa. So Mahatma went to Pretoria, South Africa where he soon experienced his real fist meeting with racism by his own.
Because it was normal for him buying a first class ticket for the train, he didnt minds. But when he was by train some white people weren´t agreed with it because he was coloured. So the train conducter pushed him out. Not interested what is happening to him now. Since this day Mahatma decided to fight against the racism. Motivated by the discriminations against him by the separation of races, he began to work for the rights of the Indian minority of about 60,000 people in South Africa. The rage about the incidents helped him overcome his shyness. Already a week after his arrival, he called a meeting of the Indians living in Pretoria and suggested the founding of an Indian interest representation. His audience listened with enthusiasm.

From now on he engagend himself in many dircetons regarding human rights and justice.
(So for example, He speaked up for more votes, created
an institut for relations between the children of different castes and religions, persuaded indians to help britains in war that they realize that they are loyal and dutiful for getting equality, traveled in the third class of trains because he wanted to get to know the simple people and get to know there views of life, financed therapys for poor ones in time when polonomy broke out out, published his own newspaper used as a speaking tube Indians .)
In this period he also developed a method base on the principles courage, non-violene and truth, called “Satyagraha”
Often he was fasting because he wanted to expiate for other people and for himself.. With the hand woven cotton symbolizing the Indian national movement.
In 1914 Ghandi went back to India.
There he did not only fight for the rights of the untouchables, the lowest cast in India but especially for the independance of India from Britain and a peaceful coexistince between the Hindu and moslem population.
Gahndi became a member of the Indian National Congress ( aquivalent to Bundestag in Germany) and because of his popularity he was voted for president of the Congress in 1925.
During this period he began to be known as Mahatma – the great soul.
He became famous wordwide with the so called salt march in 1930, a campaign where thousands of Indians were peacefully protesting on al long march against the salt tax, introduced by the British rulers.
Finally in 1947 India became an independet state, divided into India ,for the Hindus, and Pakistan for the Moslems.

Despite the separation into two countries there were still Hindus living Pakistan and Moslems in India. Tensions were all over and riots between the two religious groups were common.
Ghandi tried to stop the bloodshed between the religions and fasted a coule of times
However he made himself a lot of enemies with the Moslem radical groups. This was the reason why he died. After several attempts to kill him, he was shot dead by a fanatical Hindu on January 30th , 1948. Hundreds of thousands watched his body when was getting burned to ash. It was an international day of mourning.
I want to end with a quote of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi which I think is timeless.
„Be yourself the change you wish for this world.”
So that’s it. Thank you for your attention

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