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Landing on the moon 1969 - Referat

Landing on moon 1969
1. Declaration of the Apollo program and competition in the Cold War
2. Education for the profession of an astronaut
3. Superstructure of the Saturn-V-rocket with its components
4. Launch and flight to the moon
5. Landing on moon and staying there
6. Calculation of the splash-down in the Pacific
1. Declaration of the Apollo program and competition in the Cold War
President J. F. Kennedy declared the Apollo program in the US-Congress on May 25th 1961 with the
words: I believe that this nation should commit herself to achieving the goal before this decade is out:
landing a man on (the) moon and returning him safely back to earth. Some people said this had been a
victory for the USA in the Cold War against the USSR. But the Soviets made clear they did not have
any intention of landing with men on the moon. Experts doubt because they put a man Jurij Gagarin
into the space first and the first man-made spacecraft, Luna 2, reached the moon after a 36-hour-flight
on Septembre 13th 1959. On February 3th 1966 Luna 9 reached the lunar surface safely as first thing
created by men. Four month later Surveyor 1 – built by the Americans – landed on the moon and
transmitted 11150 pictures to earth from the lunar surface.
2. Education for the profession of an astronaut
The education of an astronaut include flying a jet fighter, moving in weightlessness{Schwerelosigkeit},
recognizing constellations, surviving in a desert, wildness, in water,on ice. Astronauts have to learn
how to control the command module during noise, coldness, warmth or seeing nothing. It is very
difficult to work in a spacesuit, because you can only move your arms in a special height.
3. Superstructure of the Saturn-V-rocket with its components
rocket Saturn 5:
height: 110,6m
diameter (basis): 10m
weight of launch: 2837t
irst stage: S-IC
The five F-1-engines fired with kerosene and liquid oxygen take the rocket to a 60km height in
2,5 minutes – then there is not any fuel. It flies in a further bend back to the surface of earth and sinks
into the ocean.
length: 42m
diameter: 10m
weight without fuel: 136 080kg
weight of fuel: 2 034 900kg
speed when fuel is available: 9 650km/h
second stage: S-II
The second stage is fired automatically after the separation of the first stage. Its five engines are fired
by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. After six minutes its tank for fuel is empty.
length: 24,8m
diameter: 10m
weight without fuel: 43 100kg
weight of fuel: 426 800kg
height when fuel is available: 184km
speed when fuel is available: 24 600km/h
third stage S-IV B
The third stage is fired by a J-2-rocket-engine. It is again ignitable. The engine is first fired for three
minutes and later for five minutes to leave the orbit.
length: 17,9m
diameter: 6,6m
weight without fuel: 15 420kg
weight of fuel: 103 420kg
speed when fuel is available: 39 420km/h
lunar module
The lunar module consists of two parts – one to brake and land on the moon and the second to go
back; the first is then used as launch platform. Two astronauts can be taken with this module.
service module
Its engines (sidewards) are for corrections of the course and for the Apollo will not to warm up. The
engine can be fired 36 times and ignition is not nessessary because the fuel burn when there is a
height: 737m
diameter: 3,91m
weight: 24 948kg
weight of fuel: 5 216kg
command module
It is the main place for the astronauts to live in and that is the only system which will come back to
earth and will land in the Pacific – according to the calculations.
height: 3,66m
diameter (basic):3,91m
weight (pilots included): 5 897kg
weight of fuel: 122kg
weight when land: 5 307kg
rescue system
It consists of rockets which are fired when there is danger (explosion) on the launch. The command
module will then come back to earth with its chutes. After the separation of the first stage the rescue
system will come back to earth.
length: 10,05m
weight: 3 628kg
4. Launch and flight to the moon
July 16th 1969 at 9:32 the five engines of the Saturn-5-rocket were
fired. In a height of 60km the first stage was taken off. It fell into the
Atlantic. The second stage, however, later fell into the sea. During the
next minutes the astronauts could not move – they had to hold out the
triple of their weight – until after eleven minutes and 19 seconds the
orbit was reached. Over the Pacific the third stage was fired to leave
the orbit. If the speed was lower then 39 000km/h the rocket could
overcome the gravity by not firing the engine. If that was not possible,
the rocket had to take more fuel, but then the rocket could not leave
the surface of the earth. The speed took off, but the orbit of the moon
could be reached. Three days after the launch the engine of the
service module was fired into the other direction for 557 seconds to
brake the spaceship. On the back of the moon the Eagle – with the
astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin – was separated from the
service module with the command module, Columbia. Both, the lunar
and the command module were named as Jules Verne had written in his novel “Le voyage á la lune”.
5. Landing on moon and staying there
After the 13 tourning Armstrong and Aldrin fired the engines for 28
seconds. With this the Eagle got into an orbit with an elipse
between 107 and 17 kilometres. 15 minutes of flighttime had been
planed for the real landing manouvre. This started, when the
distance from the Eagle to the landing place was 400 kilometers. In
6 seconds the Eagle plunged from 210m to 30m, towards a stonefoaled
crater. Armstrong took over the automatic piloting and
landed safely by using all the fuel. More than 400 million people
were watching live as Armstrong set his first footstep and said the
historic words: “That ‘s one small step for man, one gigant leap for
mankind.” Later Aldrin came out of the Eagle and they put a
camera 15 meters from the lunar module. They hoisted the US-flag, opened a fore with whose help the
distance could be measured more exactly. A seismograph sent facts of moonquakes which were
caused by impacting of stones to the earth. They brought home 12kg stones and dust from the lunar
surface. The visit took 2 hours and 31 minutes.
6. Calculation of the splash-down in the Pacific
The landing point was so refined that the USS Hornet, an aircraft carrier,
could pick up the astronauts and bring them to Honolulu where they
were flown back to Houston, Texas. But there were a lot of calculations,
for example for the {Hitzeschild}: It must stand temperatures up to
2000°C. It consists of glass fibre and ceramic tiles. Many people thought
the reason for the catastrophe with the space shuttle “Columbia” on
February 1st was that, when it starts things on the {Hitzeschild} were
So first the drag chute was opened to brake the command module
before pilot chutes – they determined the directions of the main chutes – were opened. It was not
possible to open only one big chute, because the danger was too high that one can crack on a speed
of more than 40 meters per second. With the three main chutes the speed was dropped to 10
meters/second. This speed was no problem, because it was planned that the command module landed
in water and that was possible with this speed. If one chute cracks – which did not happen – the speed
is 36 feet per seconds. During the entry the crew had not got any contact with the control center in
Houston, Texas, because of the high temperatures.

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