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Industry in Pembrokeshire(England,Wales) - Referat


Manufacturing employed 20-30% people in 1841. 40 years later in 1881 it employed signifiacantly less. If we ignore all the female workers especially the domestic servants, manufacturing seems larger. People overstate the size of manufacturing. That´s because many goods were made in small workshops behind shops. People made the goods at the back and served at the front. Despite it is counted as in “manufacturing”. So every major town would have a significant “manufacturing sector”.

In 1841 the most districts employed 20-30% of the workforce in manufacturing together with some rural areas and seaside resorts dropped around 12%.The small districts employed over 50% in manufacturing. Over 70% are employed in textile towns like Blackburn and Oldham. In the pottery towns are 62% employed and in the shoemaker center of Leicaster, having 56% of the workforce in manufacturing. You can say manufacturing was concentrated mainly in the north and midlands.

The concentration on single industries meant a poor quality of life. As the new industrial towns matured, the overall proportion in manufacturing and the number in their dominant industries declined. The concentration of manufacturing in the north continuted up to 1931, but the new industrial centers based on the consumer goods, which were growing on the south. In 1921 the population grew from 20,285 up to 52,290 in 1939. 1881 in the rural area are 13% workers in manufacturing, in 1971 it was 53%. Later ,in 2001,it decline to 16%. Its the time of Britain´s de-industrialisation.

In modern Britain the most areas contain a few factories, but they aren´t involed in the manufacture of goods.They have become centers of management, marketing and research for goods which are manufactured somewhere else. That “somewhere else” may well be outside Britain, maybe in the industries of eastern China.
Interesting is the expansion in some of the old mining areas(South Wales).So if the goods are e.g music Cds we may have a different idea of what “making it” means. We would taking more interest in the recording studios. The same is true of IT products and high fashion goods and the sout-east´s dominance of IT and fashion is striking.


Mining has never been a large part of the national economay. At its peak in the 20th century it employed under 10% of the workforce. In 2001 it employed about a quarter of a percent. Nationally mining is not easy to measure, because of its relatively small size. In areas where the mining was unimportant this rate can behave errtically. So it must be included here because in some localities it was important and defined their character. One
important fact is that the industry´s decline had a large human cost.

One example to show how extreme it was is Easington in Durham. In 1841 people estimate 26% of the workforce in Easington were miners. In 1881 it rose up to 48%. New technology mines to be extended under the sea. The number rises up to 64% and this is for the whole district. So some villages would have had higher rates. 1971 it declined to 31%. In 1991 after the 1984/1985 strike and the following mine clasures programe, only 2% of the workforce in Easington were in mining. Today it is only half a percent. Similar stories can be tould for many other districts in the North East, Yorkshire and South Wales.

In 1841, mining wasn´t totally dominated by coal. In Cornwall and in parts of the northern
Pennines, in districts like Teesdale, it meant mining lead and tin. In 1881 coal was dominant and we see districts with around 50% of their workers in the sector. Before the First World War, the industry shipped British coal around the world. In 1931 the industry was already decline. Because the old mining districts like Lancashire and Staffordshire were running out of coal and new pits were developed in the East Midlands and in north of Dover in Kent.

In 1971 the industry´s distribution was quite different from 1881. First the rapid decline began and in 2001 the remaining workers in the sector were mostly not in traditional mining. The two largest concentrations are around Aberdeen, which belonged to the service of North sea oil rigs and in Restormel in Cornwall, where tin mining still goes on.

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