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History of Ireland - Referat

History of Ireland

From10000 BC -glaciers in europe began to retire→sea level rose→Ireland became an island
8000 BC -the first Mesolithic hunters and collectors immigrated from England and Scotland; settled down from 3000 BC (growed wheat, kept livestock, developed pottery)
4th millennium BC -Neolithic wave of immigration →agriculture, megalithic buildings
2500 BC -immigrants from European continent →copper/ bronze working
From 600 BC -Celts immigrated from European continent, had iron weapons→subjected the natives
Around AD 300 -the first Celts were converted to Christian faith
From 432 -the missionary Patrick continued converting people (peacefully)
461 -Patrick died→St. Patrick
6th-8th century -many monastries were founded
From 795 -assaults by the Vikings, who founded some settlements; fights between the Irish and the Vikings
1014 -king Brian Boru defeated the Vikings in the battle of Clontarf
1169 -the Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland (Dermot MacMurrough)
1171/72 -Henry II. of England attacked Ireland and became king of it
-during the occupation the Irishmen were oppressed
1348 -Irish population was halved by plague epidemic
14th century -influence and power of England in ireland became smaller and smaller
Around 1400 -English rule was limited to the area around Dublin (’the Pale’)
1534 -England became Anglican (Church of England)
1536 or 1541 -Henry VIII. of England became king of Ireland
1641-1650 -rebellions against England lead to a bloody campaign (Oliver Cromwell, 1649) against the Irish
1690 -Battle of River Boyne: William III. of England (Protestant) defeats James II. of England (Catholic)
From 1695 -catholics were oppressed (‘penal laws’)→many Irish emigrated
1782 -parliarment of Dublin became autonomous
1797/98 -rebellions of the ’United Irishmen’ (leader: Wolfe Tone) against the English occupation→failed
1800/01 -‘Act of Union’→’United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland’
1823 -’Catholic Association’ (Daniel O'Connell)→penal laws were abolished(1829)
1845-50 -‘Great Famine’: 1 million Irish people died and over a million were forced to emigrate
1918 -Sinn Fein (‘Ourselves’) wins the election
1919-1921 -war of independence: Ireland became independant except 6 counties (Northern Ireland)

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