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History of Australia - Referat

History of Austrailia

1. European settlement
• Asian settlers were ancestors of today`s Aborigines
• they reached the continent at least 40.000 years ago
• the next people discovering Australia were the Chinese around 1500.AD
•Europeans discovered it 100 years later
• In 1606, Willem Jansz becomes the first European to land in Australia
• Between 1616 and 1636, other Dutch navigators explored Australians west, southwest and northwest coasts
• Ten years later, Tasman, also a Dutch sea captain sailed around the continent and visited a land which was then still a part of the continent, but is an island today. Nowadays it`s called Tasmania, named after Tasman.
• In 1770, James Cook explored the east coast of Australia. He called the place he found Botany Bay, because there were so many beautiful flowers.
• He was captain of the British Royal Navy, so he claimed the region for GB and named it New South Wales.

2. Convicts
• in 1786, the British decided to start a prison colony in New South Wales.
• The governor was Captain Arthur Phillip
• He came 1787, bringing 730 convicts
• During the 19th century crime started
• Families lived in dark, unhealthy homes
• Children often died of illnesses or were forced to do hard work, while they had only little to eat
• Many people stole what they needed
• The prisons got fuller, since the judges became stricter and more cruel
• Men and women were hanged for stealing sheep or bread, or they were sent to work in one of the prison colonies in North America
•1834, South Australia becomes a colony of Great Britain
•In 1850, Great Britain remits the "Australian Colonies Government Act" which allowed an Australian government to rule the British colonies.
(Whatever, Australia and Great Britain always collaborated a lot, for example in the world wars.)

3. Gold diggers
• In 1851 gold was discovered in New South Wales and Victoria
• Every day more diggers came from America,
England and Chinese
• They built little Cities and villages
• With the discovery of Australian gold in the 1850s the continent grew from about 400.000 to over 1 million inhabitants
• In 1868 Britain stopped the transportation of convicts to Australia
•In 1871 tin was found in Queensland and so Australia became the world biggest tin producer
•In 1892 gold was discovered again, in Western Australia and a 2nd big gold rush started

4. Australian politics
• in 1901 Australia became an independent state.
Edmund Barton becomes the 1st Prime Minister of Australia
The Australian National Flag was shown for the first time
•one year later the Australian government gave women the right to vote.
However, it excludes non-European groups for example the aborigines

5. Australian wars
•Australia fought in the first and second world war, always together with Great Britain
• between 1964 and 1972 Australian troops fought with the American military in Vietnam during the cold war
•Australia also took part in wars in Korea, Malaya and Borneo

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