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Globalization - Referat



1. Definition of Globalization
2. Winners and losers/Positive and negative sides of Globalization
3. Future aspects of Globalization
4. Case studies

1.Definition of Globalization:

Globalization is the process of integration of economy, politic and culture across the whole globe.
In the past the term Globalization didnít exist but today this word is known in every country.
After the break-down of the UdSSR the process of the Globalization got faster because the cold war was officially ended and the Iron Curtain was opened.
It was easier to trade and the Asian countries were better and easier to reach for innovative investors. The world became safer and more peaceful.
Today the conditions of communication have changed dramatically and companies are able to manage their branches in every other country and they have more relevant possibilities to trade and make business worldwide.
The World Wide Web makes it easier and it opens new markets.
A carpet dealer from Pakistan can sell his carpets over his internet shop in China and Brazil.

Winners and losers/Positive and negative sides of Globalization:

Industrial countries like the USA and countries from Europe invest their capital in poor countries which are in the process of developing.
The industrial countries let build factories and make new workstations in the poor countries.
For example in China or South Korea the foreign companies produce different goods and sell them worldwide.
On this way the industrial countries and the poor countries have advantages.
The industrial country for example USA can use the other country like China as a consumer for their products and save very much money because in China the workers are expensive.
After that the American company can transfer a part of the earned money back to the USA.
While outsourcing a part of the goods which are cheaper to be produced in China as in the USA the American company can save money, too.
Another advantage of the USA is when the seats for the cars canít produced cheaply, they let do it in China and after that the produced seats come back to the USA an the cars will being finished there.
USA rescues workstations in their country and let to produce only a part of the whole car abroad.
China has advantages, too.
While the foreign companies produce there, they can learn all about the technique and know how to produce goods.
Later they can produce their own goods in a similarly way and they know how to organize the production and to operate machines.
Another advantage is that the foreign companies pay taxes and the host countries make profits of the foreign companies.
Their economical potential is growing and they export goods.
In China for example the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) grows every year.
Last year the GDP was by 10% and the spending power is growing, too.
China and other countries from Asia like India or Taiwan make profits of the foreign companies and their investments.
But the poor working class stays poor and they have nothing of the globalization.
They are exploited
by the big concerns as cheap workers and nobody cares for their health.
They are paid very badly and they get short employment contracts for some months or not longer than a year, after that they will being fired without any severance payment.
The most companies donít care for the problems caused by them and they feel responsibility.
The biggest loser of the Globalization is the African Continent.
Their monocultural economy is not strong against the competition in the world market.
Apart from that Africa often suffers of the bad and unfair Terms of Trade.
Their engineers and all other quality workers emigrate to Europe or USA, so the brain drain is a big problem, too.

Future aspects of Globalization:

The pollution of the environment is a very negative side of the Globalization caused by worldwide industrialization and emissions of CO2.
The consequence of industrialization is the global warming.
The climatologists say that during the next decades the earthís climate will change dramatically.
Scientists are afraid of the dangerous effects of the global warming.
Nature disasters like hurricanes and tsunamis will be more often than today and many animals lose by global warming their habitat.
The next negative aspect is that poor people get poorer and the rich people earn more and more money.
The poor workers are helpless and get more depend from rich investors.
In Europe you can see today that the standard of living gets worse and people become unemployed. The social dumping isnít to stop because companies displace their factories in foreign countries to make more profit and to be strong against the big competition on the world market.

Case studies:

The best example for a global player is Coca Cola.
This product ais consumed and produced overall in the world.
If it is in a Chinese or in an Indian restaurant, or it is a supermarket in Southern Africa, you everywhere can by it.
But Coca Cola lets work children and pays them less money as an grown up would get.
Or the companies like Nike and adidas have their factories in poor countries, too.
They let make the needlework by children in Pakistan or in Indonesia.
Siemens has a factory in Malaysia and gives the workers short employment contracts, after the end of employment contract they get fired.

Dieses Referat wurde eingesandt vom User: Silas

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