Florida - 3.Version - Referat
Referat ist soweit auf Englisch ausgearbeitet,dass man es problemlos ablesen kann! ;-)
Es soll mit ein paar Fragen an die Klasse beginnen:
-Ob schon mal jemand in Amerika -> Florida war?
-Was die Klasse über Florida weis und meint?
As you hear, we have (Normel there are) opinions for and against Florida but very little in between, (especially from Americans living in an other state of the Union). These extreme opinions come typically from people who have never been to the Sunshine State. So am I but we'll see what my paper can change.
One thing is sure: Florida is not more only a country, it has become a cliche. Even the News reports from the state tend to give the picture of a strange, silly, synthetic place.
In many ways, this is understandable, because it’s a place where winter is practically nonexistent, where there are endless miles of inviting beaches, where shorts are the main article of clothing, and where multi-billion-dollar fun factories like Disney World offer an airbrushed alternative to real life. The Florida that presents itself to tourists is all about comfort, fun and the good life for all.
This would have been unimaginable for the Spaniards who first discovered “Pascua Florida” at Easter 1513. to them, the place meant Indians, strange diseases, dangerous swamps and great heat. It became important only in the geopolitical sense, as a gateway between Latin America, the American colonies and Europe. A competition over Florida began between Britain and Spain.
At the time of the American Revolution (1775-83), Florida was in British hands and was divided into two small populated colonies. The Floridians did not join the other colonists in fighting the motherland. However, their loyalty did not greatly help the British, who were fighting not only the Americans, but the Spanish and French as well. At the end of the war, Britain had lost her colonies and had to return Florida to the Spanish. After some questionable things the Americans succeeded in buying Florida from Spain in 1821. The understanding was that in return, the U.S. would give up any claim to Texas – a state they got 24 years later. In 1824 Tallahassee, the capital of Florida, was founded exectly between Pensacola and St. Augustine.
Florida became the 27th state of the U.S. in 1845. The loyalty to the Union lasted just 15 years, however; in 1861, Florida was one of the first states to join the Confederacy of Southern states. At the time, Florida had a population of 140 000, almost half of which was made up of black slaves.
With the collapse of the Confederacy in 1865, the face of Florida’s industry and society changed completely. With cotton production no longer viable, farming and livestock production became more important. After the war, thousands of Northerners streamed into the state, looking for a quick profit. The first population explosion began.
Nothing, however, could prepare the state for the changes it underwent in the 20th century. More than perhaps any other state, Florida was transformed by machines. The first major change was the systematic draining of the swamps, which put an end to most tropical diseases and made the state suitable for “civilized” habitation - at great cost to the environment and the native peoples.
The second major change was caused by the arrival of the railroad, which opened up the southern half of the state, particularly the southeastern coast, to settlement. Before the railroad came, Miami and fort Lauderdale had been very small, undeveloped villages. Now trains allowed hundreds of thousands of people to travel into the area and settle there. Mass tourism was born.
The next big change is in the 1960s, cartoon mogul Walt Disney started quietly buying up cheap land around the small citrus-growing town of Orlando. It was to be the location of the largest amusement park in the United States, a world unto itself. Walt Disney World opened its doors in 1971 to fantastic success. Other theme parks soon followed, transforming large parts of citrus and ranching country into fantasy worlds.
In 1842 a very god foundation , for us today also, was born in the state, in the town of Apalachicola, a doctor named John Gorrie wanted to cool his patients during an outbreak of yellow fever. He built a simple mechanism to cool the air, and later made and patented an ice-making machine. This was the beginning of air conditioning, although the technology did not come into widespread use until the second half of the 20th century.
Now people could have their sun and enjoy it in comfort.
Florida had been tamed. Once cruel and threatening it had been made not only hospitable, but downright friendly. Millions of people were no longer happy just to vacation there; They wanted a piece of heaven. Between 1970 and 1980 alone, Florida’s population grew by more than 40 percent; today, more than twice as many people live in Florida than 30 years ago. Though the state is 22nd in terms of geographical size, its more than 15 million people make it the fourth most populous in the Union, after California, Texas and New York.
Many of those streaming into Florida have been “snowbirds” – people escaping the cold North. Florida offers its senior citizens many comforts, among them wide, modern roads that permit some of the easiest driving in the United State. Florida has more than three million citizens over 65, making it the second only to California. In exclusive communities such as the town of Sun City, young people are tolerated only as visitors, and golf carts are more found than normal cars.
Another major group of immigrants are those who have fled from Latin America, particularly Cuba. Since the Cuban revolution in 1959, thousands of Cubans have made southern Florida their home. They now outnumber all other ethnic groups in the Miami area and have a powerful influence on the culture and politics of southern Florida...............!
(– and that of the nation, as the recent case of Elián González has shown.)
(ich weis schaut im Moment kaotisch aus aber zieht es einfach rüber auf Word und siehe da: Es ist das ordenlichste Hand-out, dass man sofort ausdrucken kann!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Eastern 1513: Spaniards discover “Pascua Florida“ at first
→ seems to be unhinhabitable; thus unimportant
Only after some years it became important in the geopolitical sense:
Florida as a gateway between Latin America, the American colonies and Europe
→ competition between Britain and Spain
1775-83: During the American Revolution the Floridians stay peaceful and loyal
1821: Americans buy Florida from Spain
1824: Tallahassee, the capital of Florida, was founded
1845: Florida became the 27 state of the U.S.
→15 years later the loyality to the Union is already over:
1961: Florida join the Confederacy of Southern states (so many slaves as population ≈ 140000)
1965: Collapse of the Confederacy → industry and society change completely
→ after war first population explosion through Northeners
The three major changes in the 20 century:
- systematic draining of the swamps
- arrivel of the railroad
- opening of many theme parks
Doctor John Gorrie foundet the first air conditioner (1842)
→ Florida had been tamed
Fast pupulation increase:
- 1970-80: 40 percent increase
- today more than twice as many people than 36 years ago
→ More than 15 million peoples make Florida the fourth most populous state in the Union
(after California, Texas and New York)
But only the 22 state in terms of geographical size
Florida offers its senior citizens many comforts
→ 3 million ctizens over 65 (only California more)
Biggest ethnic group of southern Florida (especially Miami):
The Cubans (→ since the Cuban revelution in 1959)
- third most popular city in the United States for international visitors
(after Los Angelos and Now York) and at the same time the most un-American city
- place of refuge and dreams for many South Americans and Carribbeans
→ over a third does not speak English (→ Spanish)
- famous Miami Beach: draw celebrities and fun-lovers from all over the world
- popular streets: Collins Avenue (bars, clubs, hotels), Ocean Drive
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