Ernest Hemingway - Referat
Life a Works of Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Miller Hemingway is born in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the second child of Dr. Clarence Edmonds Hemingway and Grace Hall Hemingway, a talented singer and music teacher.
Goes with his family to their sommer cottage called Windemere in Northern Michigan, where he was to learn fishing and hunting and the lessons of nature from his father, a devoted outdoors-man.
Enters first grade in same class with year-older sister Marcelline.
Attends Oak Park and River Forest high school, where he distinguished himself as an aspiring journalist / writer.
Graduates from high school in June, takes job as cub reporter on the "Kansas City Star" in October.
On May 23 sails to Europe to assume duties as Red Cross ambulance driver in Italy; badly wounded in Fossalta July 8 while distributing chocolate and cigarettes to troops; meets and falls in love with nurse Anges von Kurowsky while recuperating in Milan.
Returns to the United States, rejected by Agnes as too young.
Quarrels with mother, who banishes him from Windemere shortly after his twenty-first birthday.
Marries Hadley Richardson September 3; provided with letters of introduction from Sherwood Anderson, the newlyweds leave for Paris after Thanksgiving, where Hemingway writes dispatches for the "Toronto Star" and begins to hone a distinctive American prose style.
In Paris meets expatriates Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein, who reads fragments of his novel-in-progress and advises him to "Begin over and concentrate." In December Hadley takes the train to Lausanne where he is on assignment and en route loses a valise containing the manuscripts of all of Hemingway's unpublished fiction.
Goes to Spain for the bullfights in Pamplona; briefly returns to Toronto for the birth of his son John Hadley (Bumby) in October; publishes "Three Stories and Ten Poems" in limited edition.
Assists Ford Madix Ford in editing the transatlantic review, which prints "Indian Camp" and other early stories; brings out slim "in our time" volume.
"In our time" appears, containing several stories set in Michigan about the maturation of a semiautobiographical character named Nick Adams and concluding with "Big Two-Hearted River"; In May meets and befriends the somewhat older and more established writer F. Scott Fitzgerald.
Fitzgerald sends him to Scribner's and editor Maxwell Perkins for a career-long association, beginning with "The Torrents of Spring", a satiric attack on Anderson, and "The sun also rises", his famous novel about expatriate life in Paris and Pamplona.
Publishes "Men without women", a story collection including "Hills like White Elephants" and "The Killers"; divorced by Hadley, marries Pauline Pfeiffer.
Leaves Paris, moves to Key West; son Patrick born; Dr. Hemingway (his father) kills himself with a .32 revolver.
"A Farewell to Arms" - a novel of love and war in Italy during World War I - published in September to good reviews and sales, despite Boston censorship of serialized version in Scribner's magazine.
Breaks arm in auto accident near Billings, Montana, one in a series of many injuries to his arms, legs, and head.
Son Gregory Hancock born.
Brings out his book on bullfighting, "Death in the afternoon".
Publishes "Winner Take Nothing", a book of stories including "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place"; goes on safari to Africa, the setting for his two long stories "The snow on Kilimanjaro" and "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" (both published in 1936).
"Green Hills of Africa", an account of adventures on safari.
Serves as war correspondent during Spanish civil war; works on propaganda film "The Spanish earth"; contributes funds to the Loyalist cause; publishes "To Have and Have not", his most overtly political novel.
Publishes "The fifth Column and the First Fourty-nine Stories", comprising a play about the war in Spain and his stories to date.
Seperates from Pauline; moves to Finca Vigia, a house near Havana, Cuba.
Marries writer Martha Gellhorn; publishes "For Whom the Bell Tolls", his best- selling novel about a band of guerrillas during the war in Spain.
Outfits his boat the "Pilar" to hunt down German submarines in the Caribbean; none found.
As correspondent, observes D-Day and attaches himself to the 22nd Regiment, 4th infantery Division for operation leading to the liberation of Paris and the battle of Hürtgenwald; begins relationship with newswoman Mary Welsh.
Divorced by Martha in December.
Marries Mary in March; they live in Cuba and in Ketchum, Idaho.
Publishes "Across the River and into the Trees", a novel about a December - May romance widely attacked by critics.
"The Old Man and the Sea", his short book about the trials of the Cuban fisherman Santiago, printed in its entirety in a single issue of "Life" magazine.
Returns to Africa for safari with Mary.
In January, severely injured by two successive plane crashes in Africa, reported dead in some erroneous accounts; awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.
In declining health, follows the Ordonez-Dominguin bullfights and observes his sixtieth birthday in Spain.
Undergoes shock treatment for depression; on July 2nd, kills himself with shotgun; buried in Sun Valley, Idaho.
"A moveable Feast" is published, with vivid and sometimes abusive sketches of people Hemingway knew in Paris during the 1920s such as Stein and Fitzgerald.
"Islands in the Stream", a semiautobiographical novel about the painter Thomas Hudson and his family relationships.
"The Nick Adams Stories", gathering in one volume all of the fiction about Nick, including several previously unpublished stories and fragments.
"Ernest Hemingway; Selected Letters", edited by Carlos Baker, containing some of the most interesting of Hemingway's vast correspondence.
"The Dangerous Summer", an account of the Ordonez-Dominguin bullfight rivalry; Dateline Toronto: The Complete Toronto Star Dispatches", bringing together the journalistic work Hemingway did during the apprenticeship years 1920-24.
"The Garden of Eden", a substantielly cut and rearranged version of the manuscript Hemingway left behind, recounting love affairs involving two women and one man, and causing many to revise their opinions about the writer's macho image.
"The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway", assembling the first fourty- nine stories and a number of other, previously uncollected ones.
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