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Education in the novel Half broke horses - Referat


Education in the novel

• Lily:
- Is a teacher (p. 129)
- Works for the state Arizona (p. 129)
- Teaches 25 students in a one room school
- Parents want her to teach the girls only so much to manage the household (p. 129)
→ Education not very important
- She wants to teach them what the world is really like (p. 130)
- Paddling her students (p. 132)
- Gets fired three times

Back then and today

In the 20th century Today
6 percent of the teenagers graduated 85 percent of the teenagers graduate
Students get beat Not allowed to beat children
One class for all children Different classes for every age
Teachers got fired if they taught modern values Teachers need to teach modern values
By 1900, 34 states had compulsory schooling laws Every state has compulsory schooling laws
Students work in isolation Learners work collaboratively with classmates and others around the world

- Private and public schools
- Subjects like reading, writing, arithmetic

Education in the 19th century

In the late 18th century, Thomas Jefferson had the idea that a democratic republic requires enlightened and educated citizens. Early 19th century educational reformers extended these ideas and struggled to make universal public education a reality. As a result of their efforts, the northern states were among the first in the world to establish tax-supported, tuition-free public schools. At the beginning of the 19th century, the United States had the world’s highest literacy rate--approximately 75 percent. Apprenticeship was a major form of education, supplemented by church schools, charity schools for the poor, and private academies for the affluent. Many youngsters learned to read in informal dame schools, in which a woman would take girls and boys into her own home. Formal schooling was largely limited to those who could afford to pay. Many schools admitted pupils regardless of age, mixing young children with young adults in their twenties. A single classroom could contain as many as 80 pupils.

Student Loan Debt

The first student loans in the U.S. were offered exclusively to students at Harvard University in 1840; public student loans did not arise until the 20th century. In fact, the U.S. Department of Education (DOE), which was founded in 1867, did not administer federal student loans until the passage of Title IV of the Higher Education Act in 1965

Differences between different skin colors

Black people:
Southern schools were racially segregated. Blacks and whites had to attend different schools. The separate school systems were not equal. Schools for white children received more public money.
• Fewer African Americans were enrolled in school. Black children were often pulled out school because they were needed on the farm. Many of their parents were sharecroppers.
• There were not as many public schools available for blacks. If a town did not have enough money for two separate schools, they built only one school – for white children.
• In rural areas, schools for both black and white children
were scheduled around the cotton growing season. These schools were open fewer days than city schools. As a result, many black children went to school only two or three months out of the year.
• Among the African Americans who did attend school, most were in the fourth grade or lower. Many left school after fourth grade.
• Many school buildings for African Americans had leaking roofs, sagging floors, and windows without glass. School building for African Americans were worth one-ninth of the value of school facilities for white children.
• Black schools were overcrowded, with too many students per teacher. More black schools than white had only one teacher to handle students from little children to 8th graders.
• Black teachers did not receive as much training as white teachers. On top of that, the wage for black teachers was so low that it was hard to find fully qualified ones.
• There were limits on what blacks could be taught in school. White school leaders did not want black children to be exposed to ideas like equality and freedom.

Native American:
An Indian boarding school refers to one of many schools that were established in the United States during the late 19th century to educate Native American youths according to American standards. In some areas, these schools were primarily run by missionaries. Especially because of the young age of some of the children sent to the schools, they have been documented as traumatic experiences for many of the children who attended them. They were generally forbidden to speak their native languages, taught Christianity instead of their native religions, and in many other ways forced to abandon their Indian identity and adopt American culture. Tragically, many cases of mental and sexual abuse have been documented.

By 1923 in the Northwest, most Indian schools had closed and Indian students were attending public schools. States took on increasing responsibility for their education. Other studies suggest attendance in some Indian boarding schools grew in areas of the United States throughout the first half of the 20th century, doubling from 1900 to the 1960s. Enrollment reached its highest point in the 1970s. In 1973, 60,000 American Indian children were estimated to have been enrolled in an Indian boarding school. But even in public schools, they were still treated unequally.

Several events in the late 1960s and mid-1970s (Kennedy Report, National Study of American Indian Education, Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975) led to renewed emphasis on community schools. Many large Indian boarding schools closed in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 2007, 9,500 American Indian children lived in an Indian boarding school dormitory

At the beginning of the 20th century, fewer than 1,000 colleges with 160,000 students existed

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