Canada - 4.Version - Referat
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. It is the second largest country in the world. The largest country is Russia. Also Canada has the longest coastline of the world. In Canada live 36 million people and the capital is Ottawa. Although there live three people in one square kilometer at the average, in Canada you find people from all over the world who are speaking different languages. So the Canadians have two official languages: English and French. Canada is very popular for tourists and one of the most prosperous countries of the world. The endless and unspoiled landscape of Canada as well as the cultural aspects are well known.
The history of Canada is very complex. It begins with the first settlements about 15,000 years ago. These settlers probably came to Canada over a land bridge between Alaska and Siberia.
For at least 12,000 years Indian tribes, the so-called First Nations, have lived in Canada. About 5,000 years ago, the Inuit came into the country and settle down. Around the year 1000, Vikings settled for a short time in Newfoundland.
The first European visitors were Norwegian seamen, who reached Newfoundland over Great Britain, Iceland and Greenland. At the end of the 10th century they build a settlement for trade with the Eskimos. However, this settlement was desserted very soon.
Canada was discovered by the Italian Giovanni Caboto. Who landed on the 14 June 1497 on Newfoundland via the Northwest Passage. He was on order of the English king - in search of a shortest sea route to Asia. He occupies the land for England.
In 1535 the French also came to Canada. On his expedition along the St. Lawrence stream, JACQUES CARTIER occupies this area - in the name of the French Crown - as the colony of New France. The French settled in parts of the country and founded the first Canadian settlement, Quebec. During the first years the colonists lived relatively peacefully side by side, the French in the area of the islands and the St. Lawrence Stream and the English further south on the American east coast. (today USA)
During the wars of succession in Europe, which France fought against England, conflicts between the French and the English People also starts in North America. Bandit Indian tribes were involved in these battles for territorial claims. Only after four wars was there a decision. The Peace of Paris in 1763 sealed the defeat of France and France had to give the colony in Canada to Great Britain. Thus, all of North America was British.
The former French colony New France became the province Quebec. In order to prevent protests and excesses of the French population Quebec got privileges. Quebec was granted the continuation of French civil law, freedom of religion and expansion. Many Americans saw this as another reason to split up from Great Britain. In the conflict between Great Britain and the 13 founding colonies of the later USA, the Canadian colony remained neutral. After the War of Independence, the United States became sovereign. However, Canada remained British
However, there were still tensions between the British and the Americans. In 1812 this tensions discharged in the British-American War. In this war, the Americans fought against soldiers from the colony of Canada. The common war between the British and the French got the Canadians to feel a national consciousness for the first time because they could repel the Americans.
Nevertheless, it still took more than 100 years until the Canadians should get their own state. In 1946 the border to the USA was established in the vicinity of which most of Canada's large cities are located.
While the civilwar in the USA the Britain got afraid Canada can be affected. Because of that they founded together with the canadian confederation a union of all Canadian provinces. Nevertheless the union belongs tot he British. At the end oft he 19th century by building a rail road across the country, Canada got connected for the first time.
In World War I Canadian soldiers fought under British command at the westfront. After World War I Canada became a member of the League of Nations and in 1931 Canada became political independent. Canada became completely independent from Great Britain in 1982 with a new constitution. Although the province Quebec did not sign the constitution.
In 1946 the border to the USA was established. Near this border there are located most of the large cities of Canada's.
An important change in immigration policy in the 1960s was to move away from bringing in white, skilled immigrants from Europe and the US to offering opportunities to people from other of the world. Since then there has been a huge increase in immigration from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South an Central America. The diverse ethic origins of the population were confirmed and celebrated in 1971 when Canada became the first country in the world to adopt multiculturalism as official policy.
Because of the bilingual history in Canada, there live mostly english and french speaking people. Canada has two official languages to point out the equality. While English is spread in the whole country, French is mostly spoken in the provinces Quebec and Ontario.
Canada belongs to the British confederation Commonwealth of Nations as well as to the french speaking countries, the francophonie.
With 30 million residents and a huge land area, Canada is sparsely populated. That means also that there is a lot of unsettled nature. That is one of the reasons why Canada is the attractive for the immigrants. The immigrants come from countries from all over the world, even from Germany. Because of that the population increases very fast.
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