California - Referat
Geography 1: California is a US State, which is bigger than Germany. It is the western most state of the USA. There are many big cities. For Example: Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Francisco, San Diego and San Jose. The capital is Sacramento.
History: In 1775 Hispanics had built San Francisco. The original name of San Francisco was: Padre Junipero Seria di mission San Francisco de Asis, but I don’t know what it means. Franz of Asis and his mission Dolores built this city up. At the same time, other Hispanics had built up Los Angeles and he had called it: Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles de Porcuncula, which means: The village of our lady, the Queen of Angel of Porcuncula. These Hispanics were Franciscan monks. This monks were members of Franz of Asis and the mission Dolores. This Mission was used to convert the Indians. In 1848, the people found gold in California. Within 6 months, the population was doubled. But 90% of the population were men. At that time the Cholera epidemic broke out and many diggers died. That isn’t a surprise, because the diggers didn’t wash themselves. In the same year, California get a part of the USA. It was the decisive of a big war between Mexico and America which America won and the pact of Guadalupe Hidalgo said that California get a part of America. Since 1850, California has been a US State. It is 31st State of the USA. San Jose was the capital of the state in the first two years. But now, you know, that Sacramento is the capital. In 1882 no one else looked for gold anymore. Now the railway was coming. Many Chinese came to America to search for gold. When they finished their work, because they didn’t find gold anymore, they didn’t leave the USA, because in America they had more freedom. The Americans used the Chinese to build the railway. Then, when the railway was begun buiding, members of the Railroad Company hired them. They were cheap, very strong and reliable. And today there are 120 000 Chinese in California. In 1906, there was a big earthquake in San Francisco. But that wasn’t the fact why the whole city was destroyed. There was a fire, which started when the earthquake destroyed the city. 700 people died and 250 000 people got homeless. In 1936 the Oakland Bay Bridge was built. This bridge connects Oakland (a part of S.F.) and San Francisco. One year later, the Golden Gate Bridge was finished. This bridge got the name because when the diggers found gold, it was the gate for gold. (Goldenes Tor). The people thought this was the way to happiness. So this is why it is called Golden Gate Bridge.
Geography 2: In the west California borders to the Pacific Ocean. In the north to Oregon, in the east to Nevada, and in the south to Mexico. In the southeast Coloradoriver is the natural border to Arizona. The Colorado runs through the Grand Canyon. So, California is one of the warmest states. Lots of fruits and vegetables are grown up there. For example: dates, almonds, grapes and oranges. If you grow plants you need water. But that is a huge problem, because there is a big difference in altitude. The farmers have to pump the water from the big lakes in the ground into their fields. It is very expensive to get water in this way. The Death Valley is the lowest point of the USA; it is in a national park too. There it is very hot, because when the clouds touch the Sierra Nevada (a range in California), it often rains and there is no rain left for DV. When the first settlers went through this national park, it was too hot for them and they died. This is the reason why it is called Death Valley. The Moyava desert is a hot place where the death valley is too. In this part of California, there is a lot of gold, silver and borax. Borax is a important part of the economy of California. With this you can wash your hands, soap. The Yosemite nationalpark is the life of San Francisco. The Toulumne River and the O’Shaughnessy dike give San Francisco water and electricity. Without this, there wouldn’t be a California.
The highest mountain is the Mount Whitney with about 4400m. This is the biggest mountain in the north of America out of Alaska. Before, I told you that in this region there was a earthquake. But why is there such a big rate of earthquakes? Two plates collide at the San-Andreas-Fault. If you can remember, Stefan told us something about this in geography.
Population: California is the state where most people live (31 Millions). Los Angeles is the second biggest city in the USA with only about 4 Million people? Not really! In the morning, when the people work, there are more than 16 million people in L.A.. Also, there are many foreigners. Only 66% of the Californians are “real” Americans. The others are African, European and Asian. So sometimes, there’s to a big fight between the different peoples. In California, there is a high homicide rate. Eight in 100 000 people are murderers. Compare this to Germany: only 1 in 100 000 people is a murderer. There aren’t any new about that, but why? When the news doesn’t report anything, the tourists think it is a nice and friendly state. If everyone knew, that there is a so high homicide rate, the tourist industry would suffer. But the industry has a good method, sights. It is the best method to attract tourists. One of this sights is the Alcatraz island. It was the best prison in America. No one could escape! Only a few, but they drown in the harbour of S-F. Do you know some more sights? (Golden Gate (F), Golden Gate Park (F), Golden Gate Bridge (F), Death Valley (it is the lowest part in America), Panamerican Highway, Broadway (F), Oakland Bay Bridge (F), Chinatown (F), Transamerica-Pyramid (F), Diego Zoo, Seaworld), (Cable Cars, Hollywood, Walk of Fame, Disneyland, Beverly Hills). The Golden Gate Park is something like the Central Park in NY. In There is a museum, a lake and a polo field. With 412 ha the park is the biggest in San Francisco. Lombard street is another sight. It is a street which runs only down. One curve after the other one. And everything is full of plants.
The next sight is the Panamerican Highway. It is a long street, which runs from Alaska down to Fireland. Fireland is in the South of South America. The Transamerica-Pyramid is a big Pyramid in the middle of San Francisco. This Pyramid is prepared of glass and it is the safest building against Earthquakes. This building has been finished for 2 years. One more sight is the Diego Zoo.It is a zoo with lots of animals, more than in the Wilhelma in Stuttgart. Seaworld is something like Diego Zoo but there are only animals, which lives in the water. The fisherman’s wharf is a little part of San Francisco. There are lots of pubs and restaurants. Also there live lots of animals. Like in Seaworld, but they aren’t in cages. You may have heard about the walk of Fame. That’s a pavement, where stars put their hands and feet into wet concrete in the street. There are names of famous persons: The Beatles, Tom Hanks, Alfred Hitchcock, Michael Jackson, Elton John, Elvis Presley, Steven Spielberg, Chakie Chan, Tom Cruise and Arnold Schwarzenegger. Now, when I talk about the rich part of California, there is also a poor region. There are lots of homeless people, which must fight against the death. I think you all know something about these famous persons, which are on the walk of Fame. But you will learn about Arnold Schwarzenegger now.
Politics: California has got a governor like every state and this governor is Arnold Schwarzenegger. He comes from Austria and he was an actor in action movies before he became a governor. Schwarzenegger is a Republican like George W. Bush. He won the election on 7th October 2003. On 17th November he was swoon in. The people elect the governor every 4 years. When the governor was elected for a second time, he can’t try to be elected a third time.
Supplement:Now one little supplement for the end. I think all of you know that in Germany the government wants to introduce a law, which bans smoking in pubs, restaurants and at the beach. In California, this is a law and it works. The second supplement is the music band “Green Day“. This music groups’ native land is from California.
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