Belarus - Referat
Belarus is an independent republic in the east of Europe. In the northwest lie Lithuania and Latvia, in the east Russia, in the south the Ukraine and in the west lies Poland. The land is 207.595 square kilometers and has 9,849,100 inhabitants. The population density is 47 inhabitants per square kilometers. 81 percent are Belarussen, 11 smoke percent, 3.9 percent polen, 2.4 percent ukrainer, 0.2 percent juden und 0,9 percent are other. 80 percent of it are russian-orthodox christen, 11 percent roman-Catholic, 2.6 percent protestants and the others are juden and muslime. The capital of Belarus is Minsk, Minsk is 256 square kilometers .
The landscape is a wide, hilly flat country with many fens, lakes and morasses. There live elks, wild boars, beavers and bison (wisente). The climate is moderated and the winter is long and cold, in the night these are often below 30°C. The average temperature in sommer are 18°C. The official ones spoke are belarussian and russian. The unemployment rate amounts to 2.1 percent. 1600 US-§ are the gross social product.
The first head of state after the resolution of the Soviet Union was Stanislaw Schuschkewitsch (in 1991-1994). Now it's Alexander Grigorjewitsch Lukashenko. Belarus is a member by the council for collective security and forms with Russia the Russia-Belarussian union which is called of some critics as " barely funktionnierend and half illegally ". According to the early belarussian constitution Alexander Lukashenko might take part, actually, no more in the presidential election in 2006, by national referendum he let in October, 2004 the constitution so change that no more restriction of the office times any more count to him.
The representation and legislation organ is the parliament or nationalmeeting. The foreign minister is Sergej Martynov and the prime minister Sergej Sidorski. The national holiday is the 27th July because during this day the independence of Belarus was explained. The currency is the belarussian rouble, 10 roubles are straight time 0,003 euros.
The transposition of planned economy on market economy occurred only late. Belarus is a relatively poor land. Belarus is limited by the bad grounds mainly on the cattle economy. By the reactor disaster of Chernobyl count 20-40 prozent of the agrarian surfaces as radioactive contaminated. During the second world war the industry was almost completely destroyed. During the postwar years a quick reconstruction occurred.
The most important outside trading partner is Russia. The mineral resources are coal, salt, oil and peat. Important branches are the mechanical engineering, textile industry, chemical industry, construction of vehicles and metal processing. The landlocked country has a big meaning as a transit land.
The area of the today's Belarus was settled between the 6th and 8-th century by Slavic tribes. The first settlements originated here, nevertheless, already before 27000 to 24000 years. The rule of the Slavic tribes bent in the 9-th century of the suzerainty of the Kiewer Rus. After his decline Belarus disintegrated into several principalities and came in the 14-th century under the rule of Lithuania. The belarussian language developed already in the 13-th century. After several wars of the 15th and 16-th century, some belarussian areas were resigned to the Moscow state by which a part 1534-1537 was reconquered. Owing to the union of Lublin 1569, Lithuania and Poland united to a federal state - the Rzecz Pospolita. Russia which aroused in 1654-1667 a new war soon taken a big part of Belarus. This war left a heavy economic crisis. The northern war also caused the heaviest damages in 1700-1721. In 1772 Russia, Prussia and Austria walked to the first divide of the Rzecz Pospolita, consequently the eastern areas were integrated by Belarus in the Russian empire. After the second division (1793) the middle section of Belarus went over in Russia. In 1795 it came to the third division what the western areas of Belarus in Russia went over in. Consequently the state Rzecz Pospolita existed no more.
During the Russian war against the French inspiration was the territory of Belarus main scene of the fights and it was affected once more very strongly and took the population figures even further. On the 25th February, 1915 the German army moved in Minsk. With the entry of Russia in the First World War the state of emergency was arranged in belarussian area. Till September, 1915 the western part was taken by Belarus by German troops. After the victory of the armed uprising in Petrograd the Soviet power was announced in Minsk. On the 1st January, 1918 the Belarussische socialist Soviet republic was announced in Smolensk. From 1921 western land parts went, according to the contract of Riga, in Poland. The remaining area was united with other Soviet republics to the USSR. In 1939 it came to the reunion west belarus by the USSR. The second world war began in Belarus in 17. September with the Soviet attack on Poland. In 1941 German troops, within 2 months taken the land, and prosecuted a calculated destruction and destruction policy. In the same year Minsk became the capital of Belarus. In 1944 Soviet troops completely released Belarus. This war was responsible for the heaviest losses: every fourth citizen had killed, all towns, big and middle companies were destroyed, more than 9000 villages had burned down and about 380000 persons were kidnapped to Germany. On the 27th July, 1991 the uppermost Soviet dismissed the state declaration of independence which was raised in August to the constitutional law. On the 19th September, 1991 the BSSR was renamed in " republic Belarus ". Belarus became a member of the community of independent states (CIS). In 1991 Alexander Lukashenko was chosen the president.
The typical food are potatoes, for example Draniki and typical drinks are Vodka, birch juice and Kvas. One famous person is Alexander Hleb, a football player.
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