Basketball - 3.Version - Referat
Basketball is a sport that is usually played in the gym. In this game two teams with five players each and up to five substitutes try to throw the ball into opposing baskets as often as possible. Depending on the distance to the basket each hit scores two or three points. The team with the most points wins the game. Basketball is one of the sports that was invented by a single person.
In 1891 the Canadian doctor and teacher James Naismith wanted to invent a game that would keep his students busy during the winter. He wanted a sport that was not as difficult as football. After a few weeks the janitor put up two peach baskets on the balconies of the university. Up until today the height of the baskets is still exactly 3.05 meters. James Naismith ordered to put a board behind the baskets so that spectators would not be able to interfere in the game. Despite the fact that only one hit was scored most of the times during a full game back then, the game became very popular in the United States.
Over the last 100 years the ball has been changed and improved numerous times. During the first two years the game was played with paneel-balls, which are similar to today's volleyballs. Most of the basketballs are produced by Spalding - a sporting goods company.
It used to be required to wear ellbow-, knee-, and shin-guards, however, after the sexual revolution the clothing style was changed tremendously. Instead of long cotton pants and wool sweaters, shorts and sleeveless shirts are now worn.
basketball games are always played on a rectangular playing field with a hard surface. The playing field is 28 by 15 meters. There are many lines on the playing field. Each has a different funktion. Regarding the team: as mentioned before there are two teams consisting of five players each. The beginning formation is called "starting five". These five players don't necessarily have to be the strongest or best players on the team. It's important for the team to have a balanced group of substitutes. Substitutes are often routine players or role players.
There are 5 different positions in basketball. There are the guards who are divided into shooting guard and point guard. The point guard is the single most important player for many teams. He is said to be the brain of the team. He needs to oversee the whole playing field and direct the other players. The shooting guard's specialty is distance throws. Then there are the wing players who are split into small forward and power forward. The two forward positions usually differ in the height of the players. The power forward plays next to the center, close to the opposing basket. The center player is usually the tallest and biggest player.
There are two different defense strategies: the one-on-one cover and the zone cover. When playing the one-on-one cover the players always stay close to the respective opponent. The disadvantage is that the opponents can interfere in throws more easily, but the advantage is that closing the distance to the basket becomes easier. When playing the zone cover on the other hand, it is more difficult to get close to the basket because the opposing team covers the basket from underneath. The advantage, however, is in being able to throw baskets more easily from the distance, because players usually stay in a certain area.
Kommentare zum Referat Basketball - 3.Version: