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Bangladesh - 2.Version - Referat

Basic information
The size of Bangladesh is around 147,570 km². It would fit 1 ½ times in Great Britain. The 3 longest rivers Ganges, Jamuna and Meghna flow along the whole country. The biggest lake is the Kaptai-lake. Because of the annual monsoon Bangladesh is the most fruitful country. It has a subtropical climate and a very high humidity of around 60-95%. In summer the temperature can rise up to 40°C and it can fall down to 5°C in winter. The annual rainfall rate is around 1.000mm to 5.000mm . Bangladesh is located in south Asia. India surrounds it completely. Just in the south-east Bangladesh borders on the union of Mayanmar. The Bay of Bengal borders the country in the south. The Sundarbans are located in front of the coast. They create a swamp and a biosphere for exotic animals and plants. Crocodiles, tigers, snakes and axis deers live together in this ecosystem. Nervertheless some people live in small communities there, but they are threatened by tropical diseases or human eating animals. The country is parted in 7 divisions, 64 districts, 481 counties, 4.500 unions and around 87.000 village communities. About 160.000.000 people live in Bangladesh that is around 60 % of the world’s population. That means that 1071 inhabitants live in one km². Bangladesh is the most crowded Country in the world and has 2 ½ times more inhabitants than GB. The Capital of Bangladesh is Dhaka which is located in the center of the country. About 7.000.000 people live there. But most people live in villages in the countryside.

Every world religion is represented in Bangladesh. Islam is the official one. The Bangladeshis’ life is very religious, they respect all other religions and celebrate their most important religious holidays. Muslims from the biggest religious group with 85% of the population, followed by Hindus who constitute 14.5% , Christians 0.4% and Buddhists 0.1%.

Today’s Bangladesh is a part of further British-India. When the country got independent in 1971 it got the name Bangladesh. After many government changes and a rebellion, the country became a parliamentary democracy. Today Bangladesh is a member of the Commonwealth. The Constitution of Bangladesh says that it has to be a democratic country. The two biggest parties dominate the domestic policy. Because of a big mistrust between these two parties there are often political conflicts. Corruption is still a big problem in Bangladesh. Since 2013 president Abdul Hamid is the Head of the government. The Parliament has 300 places whereof 45 are reserved for women. The majority-voting-system is used for the elections. Bangladesh tries to build a closer cooperation with Bhutan, India, Maldivian, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Bangladesh’s most important imported goods are cotton, oil, rice and chemical products. The mainly exports are tea, burlap, clothes and shoes. Bangladesh has a GDP of 67.8 billion $ with a growth of 6.5%. Bangladesh’s market is open for investors from foreign countries. They don`t have to fulfill any kind of restrictions. The currency in Bangladesh is called Taka. One Taka is consists of 100 Poischa. The inflation rate is around 10.6%.The average income is around 770$ (59.000 Taka). 31.5% of the population live below the poverty level.

Health system
The anticipated average life expectancy of women is around 72 years and of men around 68 years. There are some gaps in qualified and affordable medical care. 60 of 1000 babies die under the age of 1. Bangladesh has a very small budget for health care. They only spend 27$ per person in a year. For 10.000 people there are only 3 doctors and 3 nurses. In defiance of the bad medical care, 83% of the children are inoculated. In the countryside hospitals has minimum medical equipment. Hospitals in big cities are more based on western standards.

Bangladesh has the same school system as England. Officially there is a 5 year compulsory school attendance for elementary schools. Public elementary schools are for free. But many children leave school without a graduation. Only some students visit a middle school. The country pays a part of the cost for girls because just a few of them go to middle school. 43% of Bangladesh’s population is illiterate. The education system includes elementary school (5 years), middle school (3 years) and high school (2 years).
After graduation students can go to one of the 105 universities.

Textile industry
The textile industry is Bangladesh’s most important economy factor. 1/8 of Bangladesh’s population is dependent of the textile industry. The industry often gets criticized because of the working conditions. The work is low paid, unhealthy and dangerous. Child labor is a big problem in Bangladesh. Its environment is heavily threatened by chemicals. The Water is contaminated with arsenic and other toxic substances. Although the work in a textile factory is very hard, it is popular to work there because there are just a few other working places.

Every day life
The traditional clothes for men is called “Jama” it is a combination of a long shirt and pants. Women wear a “Saree” which is like a long and big scarf that is tied around the body. They love to wear a lot of gold jewellery. The official language of Bangladesh is Bangladeshi. The Bengal scripture is a mixture of syllabary and the alphabet. Typical food for Bangladesh is rice, fish and vegetables. The food is very spicy. The Traditional food “khichuri” is a mix of fish, eggs and rice. Bangladeshis like to meet family and friends. For them family is very important. The most popular sport in Bangladesh is cricket. They already have a famous cricket team.

Why Great Britain?
Many young Bangladeshis move to Great Britain to work there. Great Britain has a high need for low paid workers. Bangladesh was a further British colony and even is a member of the commonwealth. Furthermore Bangladesh and Great Britain have the same school system. Great Britain has, in comprehension to Bangladesh, a strong currency and in the case of emergency a good health care system. The infrastructure in Britain is well built out. London has a big Bangladeshi community. Bangladeshis don`t need to learn a new language because most of them can already speak English.

Reasons to leave Bangladesh
A lot of people leave their home country Bangladesh. Reasons are the political unrest, corruption, inflation and street fights. There is no equality of opportunity in the higher schools because they are very expensive. The country is heavily overpopulated and has an overstaind medical care system. Most people are very poor because Bangladesh hasn’t enough well paid working places. Many people suffer from the destroyed environment and most of them don’t have the basic living conditions. The water is polluted with toxic substances.

Bangladeshis’ in GB
Most Bangladeshis’ live in east London in Tower Hamlets. Around 500.000 Bangladeshis’ live in the UK. They are the youngest and fastest growing ethnic group. 53% of older Bangladeshis work in hotels or restaurants many are unemployed. Some of them have their own food market. In contrast to that, young Bangladeshis become teachers, doctors or IT-specialists. Bangladeshi pupils are very diligent. 60.000 Bangladeshi pupils graduated in 2014. They have a 49% higher chance to go to a university than British pupils. 65% of British Bangladeshis live below the poverty level. They are the poorest ethnic group in GB. Bangladeshis mostly live in crowded houses and they are often sick. The Older people speak Bengali whereas younger people speak English but learn Bengali in special schools. Young people often form aggressive and dangerous gangs. 24% of Muslims are of Bengali descent. Older women wear a burka, younger women just wear headscarves. Around Tower Hamlets the Bangladeshi community is very concentrated.

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