Australian history - 2.Version - Referat
Australia was in the past and still is today for many people the unknown and seeming inaccessible continent. It’s a unique country with the biggest (Monolithen) and the highest eucalyptus trees. It’s very thin populated, above all in the outback of Australia, so your next neighbour often lives in a distance of 100 km. (Dringende Wege wie ein Arztbesuch werden deshalb mit kleinen Flugzeugen erledigt). The kids who live there can’t go to school so they get lessons per radio or Internet. But in particular I am interested in the history of Australia. I like history. It’s one of my favourite subjects in school, so I decided to make a report about the history of Australia.
My report consist of five parts. In the first part are the geographical informations about Australia. I want to give informations about the country. I think that’s very important by understanding the history of Australia. In the second part I wrote about the natives of Australia. In this part you will find information about the Aboriginal people . In the third part I wrote about the discovery of Australia. In the fourth part you can find information about the famous goldrush in Australia. And finally in the last part of my report I wrote about the new history of Australia.
Geographical information about Australia
· Western Australia WA (Perth)
· Queensland QLD (Brisbane)
· New South Wales NSW (Sydney)
· Victoria VIC (Melbourne)
· South Australia SA (Adelaide)
· Tasmania TAS (Hobart)
· Northern Territory NT (Darwin)
· Australian Capital Territory ACT (Canberra)
The biggest cities in Australia
Rang Cities Population Region
1996 2001 2005
1. Sydney 3.276.207 3.502.301 3.774.894 New South Wales
2. Melbourne 2.865.329 3.160.171 3.384.671 Victoria
3. Brisbane 1.291.117 1.508.161 1.683.999 Queensland
4. Perth 1.096.829 1.176.542 1.234.364 Western Australia
5. Adelaide 978.100 1.002.127 1.018.557 South Australia
6. Gold Coast 311.932 421.557 473.589 Queensland
7. Canberra 299.243 311.947 320.303 Canberra
· Australia has got a population of 18,5 Mio people and a area of 7 682 300 km², that means there live about 2,3 people per km². That’s very less because in contrast to Australia Europe has got a population of 489,2 Mio people.
· Australia is very less populated. Because of the big heat and the big water shortage much of the area is unusual. Only the coast of Australia is very strong populated.
· In the big cities like Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide lives about 80 % of the population of Australia.
The discovery of Australia
Willem Janszon and G. de Eredia were the first Europeans who discovered Australia in 1601. They discovered the north west coast of Australia. Later in 1642 Abel Janszon Tasman discovered Tasmania. Nobody of the discoverer liked this country because of the Aborigines. They sad the natives of Australia live like animals. They are very ugly and black so nobody in Europe was interested to go to Australia. But a few years later in 1770 Captain James Cook arrived in Botany Bay. He named this territory New South Wales for Great Britain. He hoist the British flag. The British flag is still today a part of the Australian flag. He wrote about the east coast:
“This eastern side is not that "barren and Miserable Country that Dampier and others have described the Western Side to be. ... In this Extensive Country it can never be doubted but what most sorts of Grain, Fruits, Roots &ca of every kind would flourish here ... and here are Provender for more Cattle at all seasons of the year than can be brought into this Country.”
James Cook annexed New South Wales because he said that it
is in the pure state of nature and the industry of Man had
nothing to do with any part of it.
In 1788 the British government started to build a colony for their prisoners. A few month later the first 11 ships with prisoners arrived in Botany Bay. The new settlement was called Sydney. Till 1868 about 160,000 prisoners where taken to Australia. In 1793 new settlers from other countries came to Australia. A short time later they started to investigate the area of Australia. In1815 The West expansion starts by founding Bathurst hereafter the Blue Mountains. Captain James Frazier Stirling studied the river Swan in the West coast. He saw big areas full of sheep and decided to find a new town. He go there with some friends and prisoners to find the town. Later this part of Australia became a independent colony, Western Australia, and he gets the governor of this state. During this time a street was built across the Blue Mountains but anyway most of the people stayed at the east coast because the climate there was much better than the climate in the West coast but when gold was founded in Western Australia everybody wanted to go their. So the population of Western Australia grew a lot.
The old natives of Australia
The first people who came to Australia were the Aboriginal people. They came to Australia about 60,000 years ago. Aborigines means peoples from the nature. They are the right natives of Australia. Aborigines inhabited every part of Australia. Different groups evolved differently in different parts of Australia and today there are hundreds of cultures and languages in Australia. Till the first contact with the “White men” in 1650, the population of the Aboriginal people was about 400.000 people. They had 700 different races and 260 different languages. Today only 100 of these languages are left. Later in 1000 B.C. the natives settled down and started to build canoes with which they went hunting. They hunted animals, birds and reptiles were also caught and cooked on an open fire. Aboriginal people always lived and gathered together in family groups. Usually they lived in camps of gunyas (bark huts), but people also lived in caves or in the open air. Each family group had a headman or Elder who was the leader. He decided where to go with the camp. Each day, various members of the group had to leave the camp to go hunting or to gather food and to return to the camp to share the catch with others.
Today the Aborigines are in trouble. Many have left their traditional lifestyle and have moved to cities. There is a 40% unemployment rate in the Aborigine population. Many of them are discriminated by the Australians. Even the police and government discriminate against Aborigines. The situation of the Aborigines in Australia is similar like the situation with African Americans in The United States. Australia still has a long way to go before Aborigines have equal rights.
The new story of Australia:
- 1911: The military term was introduced. They wanted to construct a own (Streitmacht). During the first world war the Australian army America with soldiers and (Hilfslieferungen).
- 1915: The Australian soldiers fighted the first time (unter australischem Kommando), (uns zwar bei den Aktionen um die Halbinsel Gallipoli. Since then the australians celebrate this day as a (Gedankentag).
- 1927: The (Bundesparlament) and the (Reagierung) are now in Canberra.
- 1932: Australia (erlebte) in the years between the two world wars a big (Wirtschafts Aufschwung) by exporting wool, wheat, butter, fruits and minerals.
- After repeal the military term in 1929, Australia began with the building of a strong (Berufsheeres), and thus the (Rüstungsindustrie) got a big swing-up. In 1936 the first aircraft factory was found.
- Time to time, Australia (ging immer mehr auf Konfrontationskurs) with Japan. Therefore (sämtliche) exports to Japan were stopped. A short time later, in Australia enacted a ban on immigration for Asians.
- 1940: Bevor Australia declared the mobilization against the Japanese invasion, the army of Australia fighted in Northafrica, Greece and on Kreta.
- 1942: On 19. February first time bombs were fallen (auf das Continent). The Japanese destroyed the North Australian town Darwin and attacked Sydney with submarines. The war against Japan (brachte Australien viele Verluste).
- After the war against Japan, Australia tried to engage (sich?) more foreign-policy. A short time later Australia became member of the UNO.
- 1962: The aboriginal inhabitant got right to vote.
- Last but not least in 1966 the currency of Australia changed. The (englischer Pfund) was changed into the Australian Dollar.
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