Americas history and presence - Referat
Americas history and presence
Indians in the USA in the past & present
I am going to talk about Indians in the USA. First of all Native Americans or Indians lived in America for at least ten thousand years before the white man came. The settlers drove the Indians off the land & destroyed their way of life. Moreover the Indians moved through the USA and settled new territory. They thought every land should be for everyone to use. They couldnít believe that someone could own a piece of land. But then the US Army wanted to own their land. Firstly the Indians tried to resist, but the army was too strong. The government signed treaties with the Indians and broke them all. The Indians had to go to reservations, where they could be controlled. With the Battle of Wounded Knee the USA won total power over the Indians. All in one the Indians were treated very badly. Today there are over 2 million Native Americans in the USA. Three quarters of them live in cities, the others in reservations west of the Mississippi. Some tribes open casinos & hotels to earn some money, but itís only a few. Most of the Indians still suffer from social problems, unemployment and alcoholism. All in all the Indians were treated badly, since the settlerís came to the USA. Today they are accepted, but they still have problems, and I think, they might have a better life.
The Battle of Lexington & Concord
I am going to talk about the Battle of Lexington & Concord. First of all Iíll tell you the prehistory of this event. At the beginning the Britains and the colonies had a good relationship. They fought against France side by side with the Britains & won the British-French war. But after this war there were many issues, like who had to pay the expensive costs of the war or that the colonies wanted to move west & Britains not. Deciding for the colonies fight for independence was the argument over taxes. And this is how it all began. The colonies fought against the Britains and there were some acts of resistance, like the Battle of Lexington & Concord. In the year 1775 the British went to find weapons hidden by the patriots at Concord. The British soldiers marched from Boston. But it needs to be mentioned that Paul Revere was warned of British attack by the light of a church steeple. He was a rebel and he wanted to warn the people in Lexington & Concord, so he rode to these cities. Because of this warning, they could save their stocks & weapons. The patriots waited in Lexington and made the first shots of the war. Many Britains died, particularly at their returning to Boston. Finally the Britains & the Colonies certainly had a very bad relationship. But fortunately the Colonies won the war and became independent. All in all the Battle of Lexington & Concord is a very important event in the colonies fight for independence.
I am going to talk about the Moving west. First of all moving west means that many pioneers who lived in eastern cities like Ohio, Indiana or New York moved to west. One the one hand the reasons were some pull factors, on the other hand push factors. Secondly Iíll tell you some push factors. The people couldnít find good jobs that paid enough. Others had trouble finding land to farm. Sometimes the cities were crowded, because more Europeans moved into the eastern states. And some others didnít like the new industrial development. Additionally there were some pull factors. The people wanted to go to west because they thought they could make a better life. If some people they knew before wrote letters, they always said that they have a very good life on the frontier. The most important pull factor was the opportunity to buy really cheaper land as in the west. Tempting was also the gold rush, the religious freedom & the privacy. Moreover the Americans thought it was their god given right to move to west. But there were also some problems. The people had to leave their home & their families. It was a hard decision, but if they did it, there were many possibilities to die on the way to west. They could be attacked by Indians, die from hunger or lose orientation. So all in all itís a good possibility to change your life and may make it better, but you should be brave & strong, because itís a hard way with dangers.
I am going to talk about Cowboys and cattle drives. First of all in the 1860s there were lots of cattle in Texas, but on the other hand in the population in the north-east was growing, so they hadnít got enough cattle. In Texas you became only 5 pounds for a cow for example, but in New York you could sell it for 50 pounds. This includes that you would make a big profit if you move to this cities with your cattle. And this is how the cattle trails began. It needs to be mentioned that the people couldnít go by railway, because it was too far away. So they needed brave persons who would go this dangerous way through the country. These persons were cowboys. They took the cattle this huge distance through country with grass & water, because the cattle needed it to stay alive. In case they survive the drive, the cowboys could take their cattle to some cow towns such as Cheyenne, Dodge City or Abilene. But the journey was hard and the cowboys often died if they were attacked by Indians or didnít get enough food. Sometimes there was a sudden stampede and they couldnít go on. In the 80ís there were to many cattle trails so there wasnít enough grass. Many cattle died. Furthermore the hot dry summer & the cold winter demanded a lot of dead. Soon the days of the long drive were over. All in all it sounds like a brilliant way to earn money, but you shouldnít underrate the dangers & problems this way could take.
What happened at Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957?
ē President Eisenhower abrogated the law, that blacks canít go to white schools
ē Orval Faubus, Arkansas governor, was against that
ē 9 black people became the rights to go to school in Little Rock, Arkansas
ē On the 2nd of September 1957 they went to school, but governor Orval Faubus ordered the Arkansas national guard to prevent them to go to school
ē Eisenhower encountered Faubus & he agreed to enroll the students
ē The 9 went to school a few days later -> everyone in the school got angry & big riot erupted
-> had to leave school after a little while
ē Eisenhower had to do something, so he placed the Arkansas national guard to protect the Africans on their way to the classroom (on the 25th of September)
ē Only 3 of 9 finished school, because they were still discriminated
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