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America in the 18th century - Referat



America in the 18th century

Child Labour

I am going to talk about Child Labour. First of all child labour means work done by people under the age of 14. There has often been child labour in the 18th & 19th century. The children had to work the whole day, by unhealthy & inhuman working conditions. Child Labour hasnít got any positive aspects, except that it wasnít expensive to use children for work, but I think itís sick to think so. The children often had to work in coal mines. They had to push carts a mile or more through the underground & back. If the kids werenít fast enough, they were beaten. Moreover some children had to polish knifes. Sophia from Sheffield for example had to polish knifes since she was six years old. She had to start at 6am and had to work until 11pm. Friday she had to work the whole night. This inhuman working conditions impacts the future from these children. They often died early & had severe damages. Additionally most of the persons had physical damages, because of their horrible childhood. What needs to be mentioned is Richard Oastler. He was against the child labour and attacked it in the newspaper. Since that day the battle for better working conditions in the child labour started. Oastler had to go to prison, but later he became known as the king of factory children. Today child labour is forbidden in many countries, but in developing country itís allowed. Over 218 million children work there in agriculture, domestics or trade & services. All in all the child labour is a horrible part of the history, but today in many countries itís forbidden. Though you should fight against the remaining child labour.

Declaration of Independence

I am going to talk about the declaration of Independence. First of all in the year 1776 the colonies rebelled against the british monarchy and made a declaration of Independence. This declaration was written by Thomas Jefferson, later the third president of the USA. The most important part of the declaration of independence is Ďwe hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happinessí. The most revolutionary part is the idea of democracy, that a government has to have the support of the people. Moreover this document is the first document with human rights. Later it was only for white mans, not for womanís, slaves or black people, but nevertheless it is the foundation for the political liberalism. All in all the declaration of independence is a very important part in the history of the USA, and itís one of the reasons why we have this state today.

Industrial Revolution

My Topic is the industrial revolution. Between 1750 & 1850 the way people lived & worked completely changed. This period is called the industrial revolution. First of all in the year 1750 the population increased, so for example farmers needed more efficient farming methods & new machines were invented. Also the way the people worked changed. First the people worked by hand & they did it slowly, but then some machines like the spinning jenny or the power loom were invented & they replaced the slowly work. Therefore factories
were built in which the new machines could be operated. But they needed workers, so everyone, instead of the very rich, had to work in a factory. On the one hand the people made a technical advance with the work, but on the other hand the work was dirty, dangerous, unhealthy & badly paid. They had inhuman working conditions. The workers often died by the work, & most of them didnít become 25. Another important aspect is, that the children had to work at the age of 5. They employed children because they were cheaper & this is very horrible. On the other side the revolution also changed the face of Britain. Canals were built, to transport heavy things & also terraced houses were built, to have a home for the workers. All in all the industrial revolution was horrible, but it made Britain the workshop of the world.

Independence Day

Iím going to talk about the Independence Day. First of all the Independence Day is at the 4th of July and itís one of the most important national holidays in the USA. The people celebrate the independence of the USA from Britain, because 237 years before the 13 colonies rebelled against the British monarchy & became the first states in the Union. Itís a good way to create a feeling of togetherness in a country where people of many different cultural backgrounds live. Moreover Iíll tell you how it is celebrated. Some people have a picnic or make a barbecue, the may make funny contests like the watermelon contest. You can go on the streets and listen to some brass bands or American music. If you love history you can also go to the Philadelphia Freedom Hall & visit some historical reenactments. You can also visit how the US Ship USS John Kennedy comes to Boston Harbour. There are many different ways to spend the day but in the evening everyone watchs the firework. The firework is incredible & you mustnít miss it! Another aspect is that the US-Flag is very important at this day. Everyoneís got it on clothes, hats, bags, wall displays & all the other things. All in All the Independence Day is a very important national holiday and everyone loves to join it.





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