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Agiculture - INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - Referat


In 1750 far more people worked on the land than in any other trade. There were squires or landlords who ere the top men in their villages in Britain. They owned less than lords. Lords had big estates and country houses and they were leading men. There were tenant farmers who rented land from the lords or squires. Most of them employed labourers on their fields. The unmarried and young people worked full time. The rest were employed only at busy times of the year. They lived in small cottages with their families and had a hard live. In 1750 many villages in England had three or four open fields divided into strips and some commonland. But openfields and commonland were disappearing because enclosures changed the situation in the next 30 or 40 years. Enclosures were lucrative for tenant farmers and landowners but they were not good for labourers because they were losing their rights to use commonland and to keep the cows and sheep there. Landlords and tenants needed labourers to make fences and dig and farm the land. On enclosed land farmers practise their own methods of farming which made possible trying out new crops. That means the crop rotation turned from the old one with three fields to the new one with four fields. They grew clover and turnips, too, for their animals it was good winterfood, so the farmers had not slaughter the animals in autumn. Robert Bakewell and the Colling Brothers bred new kinds of sheep and cattle, which were bigger and gave more meat than other animals and brought more profit to the farmers. Not all landlords and farmers were quick by changing. Most landowners started growing clover and turnips until after 1800. Enclosure brought more profit for the owners and they laid new drains to make wet land drier and put up new farm buildings, so they put up their rents and gave more working places to the farmworkers.

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